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Full text of "A Brief Introduction to New Testament Greek Samuel G Green D. D. 1913 Key Samuel W. Green M. A."

A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO 

NEW TESTAMENT G: 

WITH VOCABULARIES AND EXERCISES 

BY SAMUEL G. GREEN, B.A., D. 
SEVENTH IMPRESbiON. I9 X 3 „ 

^TO THE EXERCISES 
BY SAMUEL W. GREEN, M.A. 
Revised Edition 191 2 

Tin's />ooK Was published before \^3 O. axd 
is 'therefore ix the public do/\aix ix the 
Exited states of h[\erica. 
flease chect your oWx xatioxal copyright Ui/S- 

Tfcfs diojtal editiox Was created by 

Robbie lanes Losee specifically 
for release ixto the public donaix. 

Distributiox by axy neaxs^ electronic 
or otherwise^ is stroxdy excouraoedi 
lou t\ay use this boot however you 
lite ~ you have ny full perrdssiox. 

f\ay it ever be our ooal to i\ore fully 

uxderstaxd the Wore/ of our Lord) 

Without Which there Would surely 

be xo hope for the hu/\ax race* 



A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO 



NEW TESTAMENT GREEK 



WITH VOCABULARIES AND EXERCISES 



BY THE LATB 



SAMUEL G. GREEN, B.A., D.D. 

Author of* Handbook to the Grammar of the Greek Testament* 
' Handbook to Old Testament Hebrtw,* etc. 



SEVENTH IMPRESbfON* 



THE RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETY 

4 Bquvsrie Street and 65 St. Paul's Churchyard 

191 3 



PREFACE 

The request has frequently been made by teachers and 
students who have used the author's Handbook to the 
Grammar of the Greek Testament for a Primer or Sum- 
mary which might serve as an introduction to the largei 
work, and as an easy help to beginners in the language. 
The following pages are designed to meet the demand. 

The Primer contains an outline of the Grammar, both 
in Etymology and Syntax, sufficient for the earlier stages 
of the study, with graduated Exercises from the begin- 
ning, and the needful Vocabularies. The rules of Syntax 
are given, for the most part, as they are wanted for the 
Exercises ; and the most important of them are sum- 
marised in order at the close of the book. 

It is recommended that, as each section is mastered, 
the Exercises should be carefully written, and the accom- 
panying Vocabulary committed to memory. For the 
most part, a Greek word once given is omitted in the 
succeeding Vocabularies ; while at the end a general 
Vocabulary to all the Exercises, Greek-English and Eng- 
lish-Greek, is given. References, where it seemed neces- 
sary, are made throughout to the further explanations 
of the Handbook, the study of which, especially in the 
Syntax, should follow the use of this Primer. 

The examples in the Exercises are mostly taken from 
the Gospel of St. Luke and the Epistle to the Philippians, 
in order to concentrate the learner's first Greek Testa- 
ment studies on specific portions of the sacred book. 
It is recommended that this Gospel and Epistle should 
first be read, after the Primer has been mastered, 



4 PREFACE 

The ability to read the New Testament in its original 
language, and to make intelligent use of the stores of 
exposition in which our age and country are so rich, may 
well be the aim of all devout Biblical students. The 
acquisition, even in its primary stages, is valuable. In 
fact, as soon as the learner begins to apprehend in their 
original language the narratives and teachings with 
which he has long been familiar in his own tongue, and 
to construe for himself the very words of Evangelists and 
Apostles, he feels that a new power has been put into his 
hands for what is the most important and surely the 
most delightful of all studies. His mental horizon is at 
once enlarged ; and the labour spent on the following 
pages will have been well bestowed if it shall appear 
that the preliminary steps to a thorough understanding of 
the New Testament may be taken without meeting any 
formidable difficulty, and in a comparatively short time, 
by all who will address themselves to the task in serious 
earnest. 



CONTENTS. 

Part L ORTHOGRAPHY. 

Sect. pagb 

i. The Greek Alphabet , . 9 

% The Vowels : Diphthongs : Breathings, etc. . . . to 

3. The Consonants : Divisions and Changes . , . 11 

4. Punctuation . . . . . . « ■ ■ . , 12 

5. Exercise I. Transliteration from Greek . , . 12 

6. Exercise II. Transliteration into Greek . . . ■. 13 

7. Accent . . ... . . * . . 14 

Part II. THE INFLECTION OF WORDS. 

8. Declension and Conjugation. The Stem . ., ■ » , 14 

9. The Noun : Gender, Number, Case . .. . .15 

10, The Article : Definite and Indefinite . , . . 15 

11. Definite Article declined . . . . . . .15 

1.3. Indefinite Pronoun declined . . . . . . 16 

13. Characteristics of all Nouns, Adjectives, and Pronouns . 16 

14. Verb to be (d\ki) Indicative mood . . . . . 16 

15. Declension of Nouns . . . . . . 17 

16. The First or A- Declension ... . . . 17 

17. Exercise III. First Declension . . . . . 18 

18. The Second, or O- Declension . . ,■.... . .20 

19. Exercise IV. Second Declension . , . .20 

20. The Third Declension : Terminations . ,' . . 21 

21. The Third Declension : Various Forms . . . , 22 

22. Second and Third Declensions : Irregular Forms . , 23 

23. Third Declension : Examples , . . . . ,24 

24. Exercise V. Third Declension . . . ' ,. . 25 

25. Nouns of varying Declension . . . . . .25 

26. Nouns for Practice : in the Three Declensions . . 26 

27. Adjectives : the Three Forms . . . . . 26 

28. Adjectives: Comparison of ; . . . . . 29 

29. Exercise VI. Adjectives . . . . . . 31 

h 



CONTENTS 



3i. 
32. 

33- 

34. 
35. 
36. 
37 



40, 
41 
42, 

43 
44 
45 



Sect. 

30. Adjectives for Practice ...» 

Numerals : Cardinal and Ordinal . 

Declension of Cardinal and Ordinal Numerals 

Exercise VII. Numerals 

Pronouns : Personal : Reflexive 

Possessive Pronouns . . 

Demonstrative Pronouns .... 

Relative Pronouns and their modifications 

38. Interrogative Pronouns .... 

39. Distributive Pronouns : Table of Adjective Pronouns 
Exercise VII. Nouns, Adjectives, and Pronouns 
The Verb. Conjugation, Mood, Tense . 
Methods of Inflection : Augment, Reduplication 
Verbs in -«*. Scheme of Terminations . 
Paradigm of the First Conjugation : Mm . 
Exercise VIII. Pure Verbal Stems 

46. Consonant Verbs : the Second Aorist 

47. Mute Verbal Stems : Labial . . 

48. Paradigm of Labial Verbs : r%mr® . 
49^ Exercise IX. Labial Stems . 

Mute Verbal Stems : Guttural . 
Exercise X. Guttural Stems 
Mute Verbal Stems : Dental and | . 
Exercise XI. Dental Stems . 
Consonantal Verbal Stems : Liquid . 
The Verb <y£yo|MU » * • " • 

56. Exercise XII. Liquid Stems 

57. pure Verbal Stems, Contracted 

58. Exercise XIII. Pure Verbal Stems in a 
S9» Exercise XIV. Pure Verbal Stems in e 

60. Exercise XV. Pure Verbal Stems.- in 

61. Verbs in -ctk© . » • 

62. Exercise XVI. Verbs in -ctkw 

63. Second Conjugation : Verbs in -ja 

64. Paradigm of the Second Conjugation 

65. Exercise XVII. Verbs in -|n, Class- 1 

66. Second Conjugation : Verbs in -wjh 

67. Exercise XVIII. Verbs in -p, Class 2 

68. Defective Verbs . . . » 
§g. Exercise XIX. Defective Verbs . 



So- 
51. 
- ? 2. 

ft- 

J4« 
55. 



PAGB 

33 

33 

34 

35 
36 

37 
38 
39 
39 
40 
41 

43 

45 
46 

50 

56 
58 
60 
61 

63 

65 
66 

68 

69 
71 

72 

72 
75 
79 
81 

85 
86 

86 
87 
88 
92 

94 
95 
95 
97 



75 



CONTENTS 7 

Sect, pagb 

Part III. INDECLINABLE WORDS. 

70. Prepositions ..«.•••*• 99 

71. Exercise XX. Reading Lesson on Prepositions • . 101 

72. Adverbs 102 

73. Conjunctions and other Particles .... . i©| 

Part IV. NOTES ON SYNTAX. 

74. The Concords *•■•••»• ♦ *°f 

1. Verb and Subject . . * • • • Id $ 

2. Adjective and Substantive .*,... 107 

3. Relative and Antecedent . . . . * .107 
The Article .....•••• io8 

1. Originally Demonstrative . . . ... 108 

2. Expresses Definiteness . . • • • Io8 

3. For Personal Pronoun * . • IO ° 

4. Repeated with Adjectives . . • • . . 108 
76, Cases of Nouns ...«**; lo8 

i. Nominative, with Verbs ...... 108 

Use for Vocative ...•••• lo8 

ii. Genitive, denoting Origin . . . . - * Io8 

1. Possessive ....«•** Io8 

2. Denoting Attribute or Quality .... 108 

3. Object of Verbs of Sense . . . « • Io8 

4. Secondary Object ; Verbs of filling, etc. . . 109 
§. After Comparative Adjectives .... 109 
6. Genitive Absolute . . . • » • 10 9 

Hi. Dative, denoting Association ..... ioq 

1. After Verbs denoting mental affection . . . 109 

2. Secondary Object ; Verbs of giving, etc. . . 109 

3. Denoting the Instrument io 9 

4. Denoting Possession . . . . . • • I<3 9 
iv. Accusative ; denoting direction towards , , . 109 

1. Object of Active Verbs . . . * . • J -°9 

2. Double Object (Verbs of asking) . . . .109 

3. Cognate Accusative . . . ■ • . .110 
Tenses and Moods of Verbs . * -. . • * ID 

1. Aorist and Imperfect . . • . > ♦ .no 

2. Aorist Indefinite . . . • » * * .110 

3. The * Gnomic Aorist ' » » » . tio- 

4. Aorist in the Moods . . * * • * • n0 



77 



g 



GOMTENT& 



Sect. 

5. Imperative Aorist 

6. Aorist Subj. in Prohibitions 

7. The ' Present-Perfect ' 

8. Conditional Sentences 

78. The Infinitive 

1. A Verbal Substantive 

2. Infinitive as Object 

3. Accusative with Infinitive 

4. Dependent upon Adjectives 

79. Participles . 

1. Verbal Adjectives : Tenses 

2. Participle with Article . 

3. Aorist Participle and Finite Verb 

GENERAL VOCABULARY. 

i. Greek-English 
ii. English-Greek 
iii. Addenda . .- . . ■ 



PAGE 
. Ill 
. Ill 
. Ill 
> III 
, III 
. Ill 
, 112 
, 112 
. 112 
, 112 
. 112 
, 112 
, 112 



ft 114 

, i«8 



druii itolammt Grammar. 



-4*#4- 



PART I. ORTHOGRAPHY. 



1, The Greek Alphabet 



Name. 


Capital, 


Small. 


Sound. 


Alpha 


A 


■ a 


a 


Beta 


B 


p 


b 


Gamma 


r 


y 


g (hard) 


Delta 


A 


s 


d 


Epsilon 


E 


€ 


g (short) 


Zeta 


z- 


I 


* 


Eta 


H 


t| 


e (long) 


Theta 





@ 


th 


Iota 


I 


I 


* 


Kappa 


K 


K 


k 


Lambda 


A 


X 


I 


Mil 


M 


H- 


m 


Nu 


N 


V 


n 


Xi 


S 


i 


X 


Omicron 








(short) 


Pi 


n 


w 


P 


Rho 


p 


p 


r 


Sigma 


.s 


d* final § 


s 


Tau 


T 


T 


t 


Upsllcm 


Y 


V 


u 


Phi 


# 


♦ 


Pk 


Ghi 


X 


X 


eh (guttural) 


Psi 


^ 


+ 


P* 


Omega 





m 


& {long) 



10 ORTHOGRAPHY [§ 2 

2. The Vowels. 

(a) The vowels are generally to be pronounced as in English, 
Some, however, prefer the Continental method ; and the matter 
is practically unimportant, excepting that the system adopted 
should be consistently carried out. 

{b\ Quantity, Vowels always long, % m. Thus np=teen, 

T0P « tone. 

Vowels always short, €, 0. Thus ^tej^men, oi^on. 

Vowels long or short, according to the word , a, t, v. 

The distinction can only be learned by practice and by etymological 
rules. In doubtful cases, the quantity will be marked in the vocabularies, 

fc) Diphthongs : ai=ay in aye. 

au * au in naught. 
ii«ei in height. 
m. = oi in oil. 
ov*»ou in out 
fu and i\v *= eu in neuter. 
vi m wi in wine. 
Also <£, t!) % where only the long vowel is pronounced, the 1 
(Mota subscript,' Le. written underneath) being silent. 

(dj Breathings. A mark like an apostrophe is always 
placed over a vowel or diphthong at the beginning of a word 
(over the second vowel of the diphthong). Turned outwards 
(' ) it is called a soft breathing, and leaves the sound of the 
vowel unaffected. Turned inwards ( * ) it is called a ro ugh 
breathing) or aspirate, and shows that the vowel is to be 
sounded as with initial h. Thus 6po$ » oros, Mos = hodos ; els» 
eis, els=heis. Initial v is always aspirated, as y^m = humeis. 
So vios— hwios. 

(e) Lengthening and Contraction. When a short vowel 

has to be made long in the inflection of a word, a becomes a or 
i|, f becomes tj, sometimes ci, and becomes #, Two vowels, 
or a vowel and a diphthong occurring together in different 
syllables, are often contracted into one. Among the most 
frequent contractions are at into % ca into % ft into m co or 00 



§33 



ORTHOGRAPHY 



II 



into ©v. In contractions with © or « the <?-sOund always pre- 
vails. Thus a**, i« or o#=fl). 

if) Elision, CrasiS, and Diaeresis. Some words lose a 
final vowel before an initial vowel in the following. Thus Bm 
ck becomes Si&v. In a few instances the vowels are blended, 
and the two words become one (crasis = mixing). Thus ra atra 
becomes raira, the soft breathing (cdronis) of the initial being re- 
tained. Diuresis (' division ') is the opposite of crasis ; and, by 
the sign {") over the second of two vowels which would other- 
wise form a diphthong, shows that they are to be pronounced 
separately. Thus 'Ho-aias, 61% Esa-ias, o-is. 

{g) Some words ending in a short i add a final V before a 
word beginning with a vowel, or at the end of a sentence. 
Thus itrri becomes ianv : so with words ending in &X, as wSkww 
for v6\e<r h \4yovmv for Uyowi. Editions of the New Testa- 
ment vary greatly as to this usage. 



S. The Consonants. 

There are nine mutes, one sibilant, three double letters, and 
four liquids. 

{a) Mutes. These form three divisions with corresponding 
cross-divisions. 



Labials . 
Gutturals . 
Dentals . 



Sharp* 


Flat . 


Aspirate. 


IT 


P 


fy 


K 


, i 


X 


x 


\ s 






(/-sounds) 
(i-sounds) 
(/-sounds) 



{&) The Sibilant s, with a labial, becomes + («#s, ps or 
<f»$) ; with a guttural, becomes | (=*/cs, 7s or %f) ; and with a 
dental, becomes | ( = ts, fa ox 0s). These three, $, |, f, are 
called double letters. But in the formation and inflection 
of Words a dental before a sibilant disappears. Thus for 



12 OMTMOGRAPfitY l%$e 

(e) Liquids. These are X, |*, v, p. At the beginning of a 
word the letter p takes a rough breathing; as pnrrca, rhipto j and 
double p in a word takes both the soft and rough breathings, as 
dfipTiros, arrhetos* 

{d) Consonantal Changes for the sake of euphony, in the 
declension, conjunction, or formation of words, will be noticed 
as they occur. The most frequent are those of the liquid p f 
which becomes y before a guttural, and p, before a labial or/*. 
Thus iyKaXew for iv/coXe®, ipLiriwr® for ivirnrTd}, ip,pevw for 
ivpepu. Before the sibilant v disappears. Thus ran for -rw«. 

(e) A sharp mute preceding an elided vowel (see § 2 /) is 
aspirated when the initial vowel of the next word has the rough 
breathing. Thus, from Kara, tear fros, but icad' rjpepav. 

{f) In. pronunciation, y before another guttural or £, takes the 
nasal sound ng 3 as dyyeXos, ang-gelos (the second y being, as 
always, hard) ; iXeyfa, elmgxo. 

4. Punctuation. 

The Comma ( , ) and full-point (. ) are used as in English. 

The colon or semicolon is a point above the line.(')» Tne 
note of interrogation is like the English semicolon (;), 

Inverted commas are introduced in many editions of the 
New Testament as marks of citation from the Old Testament. 
In general, capital letters are used only for proper names, and 
the beginning of paragraphs or quotations ; small letters being 
employed at the commencement of other sentences. 

5. Exercise I, 

Transliteration. 

Write the following in Roman letters^ carefully noting the 

initial aspirate, and marking (excepting in the diphthongs) the 

long and short * and o. Underline the vowels that have iota 

subscript. 

(l) 'EN ir€L 8e w€PT€K<u8eKaT<p tt}$ 7}yepoma$Ttfiepwv Kcuo-apos, 
i]yep,ovevQVTO$ Hoptwv Uikarov ttjs 'lovdaias, /cat reTpapxowros 
77}s VaXikatas 'HpwSou, QiKivvov 8e tov &8i-\<fioi) airov rerfiap- 
XQwrm rgs f Irmaaim /cat Tpax^vvriBos x®P&h * ai Awaviov Tiff 



§63 ORTHOGRAPHY - 13 

pflfia -Qeov-iwi 'Iwappyv top tqv Zax&piov vtop ip tjj 'iffiifAtp*" km 

f}\0€¥ elf iraaap tijf w€pix^p^ w tqv f lop8apov f KtfpvtTffttiP (2avTurfia 
fAeraPoias els dtpeaip af&aprmw* 

(2) 'H/o^aro Xeymp wpos rovs dyrkovf wept 'Itaapvov, Te i$€kij\v- 

dare eh ttjp ipyjfiop Beatraadm ; Kokafiow viro mwepLOU trakevofiepop ; 
-dXXa tl i£€\rj\v0ar€ idem ; apdpmwop iv fiaXaKois l^anois T7/*0ie<r- 
pL€Pov ; lSov $ ot ip Ifiartafitp ipSoi;(p Km t/>v0# vwapxopres ip rot$ 
paaiXetois daw. dXXa ri i^eXTjKvOare ideip ; wpotp^rrip ; pat, Xeym 
vfjLLPj Kai wepiaaorepop wpo(p7}TQv* oiros iatt wept ov yeypawTai f 
i7 I8ov 9 iyw dTfoareXhrn top AyyeXop fiov wpo irpo.attiirov aov f m 
.mraaiceimaei. ttjp 68qp aov ifiTrpoadep-aovS Xeyw yap itfiip, peifmp 
ip yepp^TOis yvpatK^p wpo^rjrrfS' 9 I(aappov rov (Sawrtarov ouSeis 
iarip* 6 5e fiiKporepos ip ry (3aaikei§ rov &€ov fieifiap airov ian* 

Q m Exercise II. 

Transliteration into Greek* 
* Write the following sentences in Greek characters! noting the 
distinction between long and short e and o 9 as well as the smooth 
and rough breathings. Diphthongs, et 9 oi % ov, are to ..be. written 
with short e and o* The iota. subscript is indicated by italicising 
the vowel to which it belongs, 

(1) Kai hote egeneto hemera prosepli5ne.se tons mathetas 
autou ; kai eklexam£nos ap 1 auton dodeka hous kai apostolous 
onomas£, Simona hon kai onomase Petron, kai AndrSan ton 
adelphon auton, lakobon kai Ioannen, Philippon kai Bartholo- 
maion ? M-atthaion kai Thoman, lakobon ton ton Alphaiou kai 
Simona ton kaloumenon Zeloten, Ioudan Iakobou, kai Ioudan 
Iskarioten^ has kai egeneto prodotes. 

(2) Ottk idou pantes houtoi eisin hoi lalduntSs Galilaioi? 
kai pos hemeis akouomen hekastos ti idi^'dialekt^ hemon en 
hi egennethemen, Parthoi kai Medoi kai Elameitai, kai hoi 
katoikotmtes ten Mesopotamian, loudaian te kai KappadSkian, 
Ponton kai ten Asian, Phrugian te kai Pamphulian, Aigupton 
kai ta mere tes Libues tes kata Kurenen, kai hoi epidemountes 



*4 ■. ORTHOGRAPHY || § 

RhQmaioi IoudaioitS kid proselutoi, Kr€t£s kai Arab£s,-akou&- 
mln lalounton mutori tais hemeterais glossais ta m£galeia tou 
Th&rau 

?* ACCENT* 

(#) E^ery Greek word, excepting enclitics and proclitics (see b) has m 
accent expressed, not now generally noticed in pronunciation, but important 
for the correct writing- of the language, and often useful in discriminating 
grammatical forms.,. The accents are the acute (')/the grave O, and tho 
circumflex '("'). The acute may be on one of the last three syllables, of a 
word, the circumflex on one of the last two ; only a long final syllable 
(excepting at, ot) counts for the purpose of accentuation as two syllables! 
and brings the accent forward, or turns the circumflex to acute* Thus 
ct^dpomo? , but m^pmwmu* oIkq$ 9 but ol$€mp* The acute accent on a final 
syllable becomes ' grave, excepting when the word ends a sentence* Thus 
vw6 $ under, but vwb po/xov, under law. 

(b) Unaccented w@rds* Enclitics axe short words which throw, hack their 
accent into the -word preceding s the . accent (acute) being placed upon the 
last syllable, if the proper accent of the word is acute and on the last but 
iwo % or circumflex and on the last but cms, Thus^ with the enclitic ns the 
following combinations occur ; av0pa>Tro? ns f olicos rig* When the '(acute) 
accent of the word preceding an enclitic is on the last syllable* it is not 
made grave, Thus jxatfqrifc ti$* Pr0cliiics throw their accent forward, in 
fact losing it altogether^ excepting when special emphasis is intended. Thus 
ov mat, the ordinary negative ; but ov ## / 

(p) The circumflex is the result of contraction when the former of two 

Towels has an acute accent. Thus tpikim becomes '$4 km* But where neither 

of the blended vowels has the acute,, the contraction i$ without- circumflex : 

(d) It is not intended that in the following elementary Exercises the Greek 
should 1 be accented by learners* The : foregoing explanations will account 
for many' particulars : further details being contained in the ffandbaak. 



PART II. THE INFLICTION OF WORDS. 

Declension and Conjugation. 

8. The Stem of a ward is that part of it which remains sub- 
stantially unchanged through all varieties of inflection. Nouns, 
Adjectives and Pronouns are * declined ? ; Verbs are 'conju- 
gated/ by the help of prefixes or terminations added to the 
stem, which may itself be variously modified, but can always be 
traced, and contains the main idea of the word. To know this 



fir} INFLECTION: THE NOUN ' I'5 

Stem, therefore, is an essential preliminary to the study of the 
inflections, 

The stems of words, In the fallowing pages, will be distinguished by dark 
letters, and in general by an appended hyphen, as the stem in itself is 
incomplete, requiring some kind of addition before it becomes a word. 

THE NOUN. 
9. (a) Nouns have Three Genders : Masculine, Feminine, 

and Neuter* 

(d) Also (in classical Greek) Three Numbers : Singular, 
Dual denoting two, or a pair of anything, and Plural. The 
Dual, not being found in the New Testament, will be omitted 
from the following pages. 

(c) There are Five Cases I the Nominative, or case of the 
Subject; the Genitive or Possessive ; the Dative or Conjunc- 
tive j the Accusative, or case of the Object, and the Vocative, 
used in direct address. 

The Nominative Case singular is the form given in all 

Vocabularies and Lexicons. The method of its formation from 
the Stem is therefore a matter of prime importance. 

io. The Definite Article is employed in combination with 
nouns, and is declined in gender, number, and case, to cor- 
respond with them. 

There is no Indefinite Article in Greek, but its place is 
often supplied by the Indefinite Pronoun {any, a certain). 

The following forms, which should be carefully committed to 
memory, afford a general type of the inflections of nouns, ad- 
jectives, and pronouns, and will therefore be useful in their 
acquisition. 

U, Definite Article, the (note accentuation). 



Singular. 

M. F. N - 

N. o % r6 

G. rod t% rov 

D, ry rrj Tip 

A. T6P rtjv. r6 



Plural* 

M. F. N. 

©I el rd 

twp rm r&v 

Tott rats Tots 

rofa rtis ri, 



1 6 INDEFINITE PRONOUN: VERB. "TO BE'[$%2 



i% ■■ .Indefinite- Pronoun vany % -a certain* a (enclitic, see §y5#). 



Singular, 



. M* and F* 
N* . rts . 

Tiwm 

TiPi 

npa 



■ N. 
Ti 
TIP OS 

TIWi 
TX- 



Plural. 



M. and B\ 



N. 

r iv tap 
Tier i 



G. 
D. 

. A, . 

13* In the two forms now given there are three particulars, 
applicable to all nouns 9 adjectives $ and pronouns t— 

(i) Neuters are alike in the nominative and accusative: of each 
number, ' Neuters plural, nominative and accusative, always 
end in d. 

(2) The dative singular always ends in t; although to a long 
vowel the iota is subscript, 

(3) The genitive plural always ends In «v. 

; 14* .. Since a knowledge of the verb to be is necessary for the 
formation, of the most simple sentence, the conjugation of that 
verb, in the Indicative Mood,., is here given^ with a view to the 

following Exercises :— 

Present. 



Singular* 
djii I am 
et thou art 
4<rr/(v),he (she or it) is 

Singular, 
fjv I was 

f)$ (or ^jffda) thou wast 
%}v he (she or it) was 



Past. 



Future, 



Singular, 
"ivofiM I shall be 
fey thou shalt be 
l«rrat he (she or it) shall be 



Plural, 
ia-j&iv we are 
4<rr4 ye are 
cUrl(v) they are 

Plural 

$}/£€¥ we were 
^re ye were 
$}<rav they were 

Plural. 

iffdfieda we shall be 
$(T€ffd€ ye shall be 
'frwrcu'tliey shall be 



§m 



FIKST DECLENSTOft 



Declension of Nouns. 



17 



15 # Nouns are of Three Deelenwoi?*, or general forms 
of inflection. To the First belong all whose stems end In a, 
to the Second all whose stems end in o, and all the rest to the 
Third. The First and Second are farisyllabic, i.e. the ter- 
minations are blended with the stem-vowel in one syllable : the 
Third, imparisy liable > i.e. the termination of most of the cases 
forms an additional syllable to the stem. 

The first Declension nearly corresponds with the Feminine form of the 
Article, the second with the Masculine and Neuter ; the third with the In- 
definite Pronoun rts. 



16. First Declension (A). 

(1) Feminities, in the nominative case, exhibit the Simple 
Stem, excepting that in certain cases the a is lengthened into ij. 
Hence tlie following varieties :— 



Stems*-. 


W a 4> a " writing*. . . yXacrira- tongue. . 


oIkui- house. 


Sing. N* 


ypmtpri a writing (subj,) 


ykwa'^a 


oMa 


" V G< 


ypatprfi of a writing 


- y\d)&<T7is 


dda$- 


■D.- 


ypcL$y to a writing 


y\&<ro"Q. ' 


■ oM§ ■ 


A." 


ypa<fyfp> a -writing (obj») 


'y\Qc<rav 


oIkIhv 


.V* 


ypa<pifj writing 


*yXc30*<ro : 


oticta ■ 


IirJ. 


ypa<pal writings- .(subj.) 


ykootrcai 


oMai 


,G.-. 


ypa<f>Qv of writings ■ ' 


y\<0<r<r(5v- 


oltciwv. 


■ "D. 


y pa<f>at$ to' writings 


y\d<r trait 


. obctais 


" A.:- 


- ypa<p&$ 'writings (obj#) 


ykii^^as 


.- oticta* 


v.- 


' '~ypa$(d- writings" 


yTuSa&ai 


'' o&tfar 



Notes. 

(a) Like ypatptf are all nouns of this declension whose 
nominative ends in % 

(b) Like yKuxrtra are nouns in a preceded by a. consonant, 

excepting p. 
■'(c) Like olda are nouns in a preceded by a vowel or p. 
(d) The terminations of the Plural are alike in all three. 

B 



i8 



Noum 



1«(*). 



(2) Maseulines of this declension form the nominative in 
s added to the stem, the a being lengthened into tj after a eon* 
sonant, excepting p. Hence these varieties .*— 



Stems, wpvt®,- judge, 

Sing. N, Kpirjjs a judge (subj.) 

G. KpiTod of a judge 

D. tcpiTxi to a judge 

A. /cptT#ajudge(0DJ.) 

V. KpirA O judge 

Plur. N. /tpi7a£ judges (subj,) 

G. Kpir&v of judges 

D, Kptrms to judges 

A. tcpir&s judges (obj.) 

V. Kpiral O judges 

Notes. 



vfavia- young mam 

vrnvhas 

piaviov 

vmviq, 

veavlap 

veavla 

veavlai 

V€avmv 

yeavlais 

veavlat 

P€av£m 



(a) The Vocative Singular gives the simple stem. 

(£>) The Plural terminations are precisely like those of 
feminines. 

(c) Proper names in as which have a consonant before the 
stem-letter, form the genitive in a instead of <xu. Thus K??$fit 
Cephas, gen. K^<£a, but 'AvSpias Andrew, gen. 'Kvdpiov. 





17. Exercise 


III. 






Vocabulary 






«4>Xh 


beginning 


^jitlpa 


day 


PcuriXcCa 


kingdom 


|Ul0l|T^3 


disciple 


SiKatocrtbn 


righteousness 


irpo^rqs 


prophet 


Sofa 


glory 


0"0€p{a 


wisdom 


IvtoX^ 


commandment 


X^P& 


country 



Proper Names. *Heratas Isaiah, 'IwSls Jonah, 'Hp&Sijs 
Herod, 

Prepositions : governing Genitive, %w6 from | governing 
mtlve, kvin t o-vv with. 

Conjunct jon. tcaC mtd^ alsp, 



%if] FIRST DECLENSION; EXERCISE 1 9 

Rules of Syntax and Remarks. 
(I) The Nominative is the case of the Subject. 'A 

Verb must agree with its Nominative Case in Number and 
Person 1 (The First Concord), Nouns are of the Third Person. 

When the Subject is a Personal Pronoun, it is implied 
in the form of the Verb, and is not separately expressed un- 
less emphatic. In the Third Person singular, the omitted 
Subject will be he, she or it, and is to be learned from the 
connexion. 

{2) When the Predicate is a Noun (or pronoun, adjective, 
or participle) joined to the Subject by a form of the Substantive 
Verb {copula) it must correspond in case. This is sometimes ex- 
pressed by the rule, * The Verb to he takes the same case after 
as before it. 5 , Subject and Predicate are in apposition. 

(3) The Greek Article must be in the Gender, Number 
and Case of the noun to which it belongs, according to the 
rule. ' Adjectives, Participles and Pronouns must agree with 
their Substantives in Gender, Number and Case/ {Secma 
Concord. ) 

The Article is often found with abstract nouns when regarded 
as separate objects of thought. See Gk. sentence 9 below. 

The Indefinite Article is not to be represented in Greek. 
SeeEng. sentences, I, 8. 

(4) Cases. The Genitive often denotes possession, and 
In English has the sign of 

The Genitive, Dative, or Accusative may be governed 

by prepositions* in conformity with the general idea of the 
several cases : the Genitive signifying origin— from : the Dative, 
association— -in, or with ; the Accusative, approach— towards, to, 
into. 

■' Translate :— 

I. at ivTohaL 2. ^ 56$a rQv fiagrihemv. 3. i 'yXwcrcra roQ 
tmBfiToO. 4. (rifv ducaio&tivQ, 5. & ram ^ipais. 6. 6 veavlm 
mBr}Tfa f*>. 7. 'Iiams koX 'Htraftw itpo^at, ^av. 8. &irb rt}$ 



20 nouns c§ 17 

Render into Greek (bracketed words not to be expressed) : — 
1. (He) is a disciple. 2. We are disciples. 3. Disciples of the 
prophets are in the country. 4, The commandments are in 
righteousness. 5. The kingdom will be in glory, 6. In the 
days of Herod. 7. With Herod and the judges. 8. (There) 
shall be a kingdom of righteousness. 9. From the command- 
ment of Jonah. 10. In the writings of Isaiah. 11. Wisdom 
(art.) and righteousness (art.) are the glory of disciples. 

18. Second Declension (O). 

Masculine and Feminine nouns add s to the stem, and are 
similarly declined throughout. Neuter nouns add v. 

Stems. Xo^o- word (masc). 080- way (fem.). Ip-yo- work (neut). 

Sing. N. \6yos 686s ipyov 

G. \6yov oBov §pyov 

D. \6yt$ 68$ $pyq> 

A. \6yov 686v ipyop 

V. \6ye 684 %pyov 

Plur. N. \6yoi 68oi fyya 

G. \6ywp 68(2p §pycw 

D. %6yois 680?$ ipyois 

A. \6yov$ 68ofc $pya 

V. "h&yoi 68oi tpya 

19, Exercise IV. 

Vocabulary. 

dSfX^os brother ovpavds heaven 

av0pc«)fros man ty0a\|*6s eye 

8ok<Ss, \ beam tIkvov child 

8»pov gift vtos son 

0€os God Xpurrds Christ (Anointed) 

v<J|j.os taw 

Prepositions ; governing Genitive, 4k (before a vowel lfj) out 
of ; Accusative, els to } unto. 
Negative Adverb: qv Lq&k, qvx : P« I0 5'j not. 



§20] SECOND AND THIRD DECLENSION 21 

Remark. 

The position of emphasis in a sentence is the beginning or 
the md. The Substantive Verb is very often placed at the end 
of a sentence ; the Predicate, contrary to the English order f 
standing first. See 2, 5, 8 (Gk.) below. So 2, 8 (Eng.). 

Translate : — 

U ol 6(f>0aXfiol rod t4kvov. 2. vlbs tt}% paeikdas ierrt. 3. h 
r-ff 65$ eh T7}v oldav. 4. vdfios (rod) 0eo0. 5. a8e\<pol daw. 
6. it SoKds iv T(f dtpdaXfitp fy. 7. $pya vhfiov. 8. reKva Qeov iare. 
9. ij- oipavov X670S 9jv. 10. diKauxnjvr) iv r@ vhfAig qvk iffrfy. 

Render into Greek ; — 

I. The gifts of the brethren. 2. (He) is a brother to (dat.) 
the man. 3. (There) is a way to heaven. 4. (Thou) art, O 
man ! a son of the law. 5. In the law and the prophets. 6. 
In the commandments of the law. 7. Righteousness will not 
be from the law. 8. The word and the commandment are a 
way of righteousness. 

20. The Third Declension. 
in this Declension are Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter 

nouns. 

The Stem is shown by the Genitive ease, and may end 
either in a consonant or in a vowel. 

The terminations are added to the Stem, as follows :— 

m and p. N. ' 

Sing, G. -©s -os 

D. —1 -v 

A. -a, vowel stems, v. like the Nominative 

/Vw/vN. -€S -a 

G. -«v -«v 

D. .. -en «cn, 

A. -as -» 



22 



NOUNS 



.21 



21, Various Forms of the Third Declension 
Showing the connexion of the Nominative with the Stem. 



Stem. 

1. CUiOV- 

2. ptJJMtT- 

3. iroi^cv- 

4. prjTop- 

5. Xcovt- 

6. iraTip- 

f. KlJpVK- 



Nominative. 

p$T(dp 

Xiwv 

waT^p 



8. Xa^a.8- Xa/wrds 

9. oSovt- ddofe 
10. woS- Tote 

13. Ix0v- l%6fo 

13. iroXi.- w6ki$ 

14. jSacriXev- j8a<rtXei/s 
1.5. "yfvw- -y^of 



Genitive. 

plfjTapQS 

Xiovrof 
wwrpbt 

K^pVKOS 

\ap,ir&8o$ 
686vto$ 
iro86s 
arm 

w6\em 

yivovs 



Meaning. 
age 

word, saying 
shepherd 
orator 
lion 
father 
herald 
torch 
tooth 
foot 
ear, 
fsh 
city 
king 
race, kindred 



Gender, 
m. 
n. 
m. 
m. 
m. 
m. 
m. 
f. 
m. 
m. 
n. 
m. 
1 
m. 
11. 



Notes. 

1, Stem unaltered in the Nominative. 

2, Stem unaltered, except that the final r is dropped for 
euphony. Many neuter nouns come under this head, a few of 
i^hich, instead of dropping t, replace it by % as nipas horn, 
gen. Kiparo% <pm light ', gen, $<yr<k. One noun replaces the wr 
by mp f tidtep water, gen. Parosj another by v, y6vv knee, gen. 
ydvaros. The stem ^aXaKT- milk 9 becomes ■ydXa in nom, 

3, 4. Vowel of stem lengthened 1 t to ij, o to «. 

5. Termination ovt modified into ®v. 

6. Vowel of stem lengthened in nom., but dropped in gen. 
and dat. : waripot, waripi, { syncopated ' into warpdsj warpL 

7-1 1. Sibilant s added to consonant stems, and blended with 
them according to rules of orthography, See § S {b). 

7. A guttural, as k» becomes f (so a labial becomes ty). 
yvKT- wS£, vmr6$ night combines 7 and 8. 



1 32] THIRD BMCLENSION 2% 

8, A dental dropped before s. One word drops the liquid 
p t fidprvs, pdpTvpos, witness, dat. plur. fxaprvau 
g, 10. The harsh terminations -ovts, -oSs modified to #vf.' 

12. Sibilant added to a vowel stem, which stem remains 
analtered throughout. 

13. Sibilant added to stem in nom. unaltered, in other cases 
the change of I into kindred short vowel €, and in genitive, 
lengthening of -os into -cat. 

14. Stem-termination really -sf, this second letter being an 
ancient lost consonant ('digamma') with the sound of P. It 
becomes v before a consonant, and is dropped before a vowel. 
Thus nom. fiaaikefo, gen. fiao-ikim {-m as in 13). 

15. The stem ending -€cr becomes os in nom. The genitive 
would regularly be yivecros, but o* between two short vowels is 
Jropped for the sake of euphony. Hence yfreos, contracted intp 
yivws. This class of neuter nouns is large, and as the nominative 
resembles that of the Second Declension masculine, it is important 
to distinguish them. 

22. Irregular Forms. 
Stem yvvaiK* Nom, yvvi} woman Gen. yvv<wc6s Voc. yfoai 
K.W' utibsv dog kw6s Kiov 

TptX" fy% hair rpix&s 

Here the aspirate of x in the stem is transposed to the first 
letter, s being added to form the nom. as in 7 ; r is retained 
except in dat. plur., which is %$. 

&V€p-. Nom. &vi\p man. Like 6, irar^ syncopated, except- 
ing that the letter § is placed between the v and p for the sake 
of euphony. Gen. &vdp6$. Dat. ivBpt. Ace. fodpa. Voc. 
$&ep, Plur. &vdpes t &v§pQp, tivSpdcri, &v$pas. 

Some Proper Names, 
'I^crouy, Jesus, is thus declined : — 

N. 'I^croOs. G. and D. 'I^crou. A. 'Iq&ovv. V. f Ii}<ro§* 
"AwoSXtfrSf Apollos. G. 'A^oX%4. D. 'A3roXX<£. A. 'AtoXXci^ 
©r 'AiraXXa?. 
The above are generally ranket* with the Second Declension. 

Ze fe p Zeus {Jupiter)* G. Ai6s. A. A/a, 



2 4 



noums 



C§.2 3 



I! 



ctf 












^4 & ^ 

9* 8 *» 8 






,tRttW ***• ^r , *** is Q» Q* cl cl 
!* !*» !*S S* 5< i* * £ 5 




5 
? * 



8 : s 



O 



tf 2 ^ Sr* ^ <§ ^S 



JZ CD 






3^ <& 

*u ^ ^& *** 





R- 




§ 




Hi** 1 *^ 


**& 


e 


b 


w 


u> 


^MHSflSS* 


^ 


^ 


^ 


^> 



1/* 



g 



■ ~ «* tJ s 2 fe S 
§ a a a a a a. a ■? 







^ 3 •?, 



a o 



S. JS J" 1 1 1 



ttS 






cS 


i 






to 

s 




3 


b 


to 




nu 


tu 




CL 


CL 


a 


'q! 


•s 


JS 


JS 





^D 



8 *• ■ JS S 3 rf I 

3 o o o j3 0*3.00 

% My ^ *HU NW Hu ^ *vy *^ 



c 
o 

a 

is 

o 

u 






O 



■o 



3 



.u> 



S 



*^Q ^O "*0 

b b fc 






?! 



b " ^ 

-o cs jg j< 
fe t* n k 



m 



.8 3 *a « 

* ^ S fa 

c^~ v ^ ^5* <5^ <sr *5* 2* ^ ^^ 



till ,1 i 1 * 



t 6 66 6 5 6 6 6 



s 






Or 

o 



QS ^> Cfc, CT^ "^ 

g X J< X H X 



s I tf w 

•S J £ .1 

' ^ ^ ^ qv 

X ^ X H 



i 



m 






S. 



o «» a 



^ Q ^3 <3 <3 <3 :§ <3 -3 <3 <3 © 



% 6 Q ^ > v >" O Q ^ 

1 ^ 




«Q 



fl t § s& to *o «o vS 
t3 ? fe fe N N N 

2 a 


«o ^o <o 

*<i *-o 


•3 c§ £6q<£ 


>6q< 


* 





1 2 S ] THIRD DECLENSION; EXERCISE 25 



jfclXes, *wh member (of the 

body), ##*£ 
ftvopo, -aros, »0Z^ 
BpQSt -ovr, mountain 
«frp3^»> -aros, d&sftf 



24. Exercise ¥. 
Vocabulary. 

tr&p,a, -aros, ^^K 
erwTjp»-%>0s, deliverer \ Saviour 
XapiS, -tros, grace, favour 
MapidjJt (indeclinable), or Ma- 
p£a -as, Miriam, ox Mary 



Translate : — 
I. Mpoitrk tls iv ry wSkei ifv, 2. rh fvofxa r% yvvaiKbi 
iffn Mapiafi. 3. oi K^pvKes r&v i6v(bv. 4. rh, pr^fiara rod dvSpbl 
itbv x&ptn ^<rav. 5. dvdpes a8e\<poi, fia0T)T7]s rod Swr^p6s elpi. 
& woifihes rwes iv rQX&pq. el<rw. 7- els rbv §a<n\ia rrjs wtikem. 
..& /^X^ i#to> T0 ^ v&fiaTOS Xpurrod. 9. fidprvpes facade tQv 
■fcqiuiTW Qeov. 10. cbrd rwv wokeav els rd %% 

Render into Greek : — 
I, In the night. 2. Kings are shepherds of the nations. 
3, Men and women and children are in the cities. 4. They 
will be on (in) the mountains. 5. We are children of the day, 
not of the night 6. Words are not deeds. 7. With the 
fathers and the mothers. 8. We shall be heralds and witnesses 
of the word (Xoyos). 

25. Nouns of Varying Declension. 
A few nouns in *os alternate between the second declension 
and the third : thus £Xeos mercy, gen. i\iov$, dat. i\4ei, ace. ^Xeos 
and iXeop. vovs mind, gen. yobs, dat. vot crd^arov sabbath, 
dat. plur. Hfipao-t. M«^5 or Mawcrifo Moses, in 4 gen. MuMtas, 
varies in the dat. and ace. between the first and third, declen- 
sions : MwoVet and.-Mw&nf,' MwuWa and M<ov<ftjv, Jerusalem 
appears in three forms : 1. 'lepoo-oXvpa, fern. sing. 1 dee. (Matt, 
ii. 3). 2. "lepoo-oXvfMa, -XtipLap -Xtf/tois neut. plur. 2. dec. 3. 
lepoi/o-aX^/i indeclinable, from the Hebrew. 

Many proper names from the Hebrew are indeclinable, also a 
few other words, as wd<rx<* passover, These, where needful, 
will be shown in the Vocabularies. 



26 



NOUNS; ADJECTIVES 



[§26 



26. Nouns for Practice, in the Three Declensions. 

Hereafter, in the Vocabularies, the Gender will be indicated By the 
Article, the Declension by the Genitive termination. 



#yyeX.os, ou, 6, messenger y angel 

dvepos, -ou, 6, .who? 

dpedj, -^s, ^, virtue 

pCos, -01/, 5, /#*? (in its mani- 
festation) 

Y^, 7^s, ^, /and, earth 

■yvwcrts, -ews, ^, knowledge 

ypdp.p,a, -aros, r6, &/&r 

Sdicpv, -uos, t6, a &#r 

SiSdcncaAos, -ou, 6, teacher, 
master 

SovXos, -ov s d, bondman, ser- 
vant 

itSos, -ous, rd^form 

IXirCs, -idos, ^, /b/te 

£«^j, -??s, ^, /$£ (in its principle) 

fjSov^, -%, $1) pleasure 

0vpa, -as, ^, <af<?0?* 

icapSia, -as, ^, /fo#ri? 

Kpio-is, -ews, § t judgment 

KTfjjxa, -ares, r6, & possession 



Kvpios, -ou, 6, /#n/, d Kupt*s. 

Xt0os, -ou, d, j/S9if« 
pipes, -ous, t<5, ;/ter/ 
jfc^v,-- m>7jp6s 9 d, month 
vavrrjs, -ou, d, sailor 

oIkos, -ou, d, ^<7WJtf 

6pvts, -viQos, d, r), bird 

irafe, ircudSs, d, ^, &$iZ/ ; boy 

or girl 
-jtCo-tis, ~ea>s, $ r faith 
iroXirtjs, -ou, d, citizen 
iroTap.ds» -ou, d, raw 
<TTpaTi(»TT]Sj ou, d, soldier 
tIXos, -ous, rd, <f«^ 
4>dpos, -ou, 6 } fear 
4>p7|v, (ppevos, r) (in plur.), /^« 

tellect 
<f»acmr}p, -^pos, d, luminary 



27. Adjectives. 

Adjectives are declined in Gender y Number, and C«j<?. 

(a) In form, some follow the Second or O-deelension, in 
the Masculine and Neuter ; the First, or A*declension in the 
Feminine. First Form. 

(£) Some follow the Third declension in the Masculine and 
Neuter, the FiPSt in the Feminine. . Secc nd Form. 

(4 Some follow the TMrd declension -throughout, Third 
Form. 



■m iW 



ADJECTIVES 



27 





M 


First Form. 


<rO<|>0- 


cro<pA v 


wise. 




Sing. M. 


F. 


N. 


Ptur. 






N* 


G, ~™ 




-??s 






~(kt 


-c$i# 


-W 


D. '$ 




« 

-w 






-o« 


-a?s 


•04f 


A. "^ 




«1§p 


-6v 




-0$S 


-dt 


m w 


V. -* 




*1§ 


-<5? 




~®£ 


-al 


-A 



a^io- &*yia- ^0/p. 



■N. 
0. 

A. 



^-ytos 
-lou 

-to? 
-te 



»7^a 
-las 

-la 

-la? 

-la 



&yiov 

-iov 

'IOP 

-IOV 



&yiot &yiai Ayta 

4<av -ttS -to*> 

-tots -lats -lots 

-lous -las -ta 

•tot -tat *tft 



Zee 
Notes 



When the stem-vowel is preceded by a consonant, the Femi- 
nine ends in % and the adjective is declined like <ro06s, when by 
a vowel or p, the Feminine ends in a, and the adjective is de- 
clined like %tos. Thus /«Kpos, (uicpd, fUKptv, little. Gen. 
pxpofti pucpfis, fufcpoQt etc. 

Adjectives in 00- and €©- are contracted. Thus :— 

X/>wr(€Os)-oOs golden (-ea)-^ (-eov)-ow 
dTX(oos)-oOs «»£& (-<w?H (-oov)-wp 

'The Adjective i\«*>* merciful, has the Attic termination -ecos instead of 
eos. It is only found in the New Testament in the nom. sing., in the 
phrase, * God (be) merciful to thee,' or ' God forbid I * 

Several Adjectives of the First Form have the Feminine in 
-OS, as well as the Masculine ; like Feminines of the Second 
Declension. For these * Adjectives of Two Terminations,' see 
the Vocabularies. 

(*) Second Form. 

Adjectives of this form exhibit the Stem in the neuter nom, 
sing,, modified if necessary, according to rule. The Feminine 
always has a in the nom. sing. 



Zee 

Ixl 

Notes 



28 



ADJECTIVES 



a n m 



Sm£>, u. 

N.V. was 

G* Tapr6§ 
D* wglfH 
A, w&pra 



Stem,, itoft- ail 



f. n. 

Taffd wBp 

wda^s TT&PTOS 

^d<ry wawH 

wSuraw wap 



Plur* M. 

wdPT€$ 

wdwrmp 

warn 

wdprm 



F. 

iracrac 

7n£<rcus 



If* 
wdpra 
wdprmp 
iracn 

wdprm 



Many forms of the Participle are declined according, to 

this model, as will be shown in the Conjugation of Verbs, 
Thus ;■ — 

Avoir- X&tfp -ovaa 

Xwravr- Mams -&aa*a 

XnicFT^ \v0eis ~067ara 

XeXvKor* XeXuKm -Kvm 

The Adjective stem-ending v- becomes -cut in. the Femmine, 
ind is declined thus :— 

Stem %vQw- ctifeia- straight. 



-crop 
-0ip 

~k6$ 



Sing. 


M. 


F. 


N. 


Plur. M. 


F. 


N. 


N. 


etidfc 


evdeta 


em 


eddeis 


eMetcu 


eM4a 


G. 


eveios 


evdeias 


eWios 


evBitip 


eideiwv 


e-bdim 


D. 


€&det 


evdelg, 


evOet 


evBian 


eddeicus 


eMfot 


A. 


etidtv 


edBeiap 


em 


eddeis 


evdeias 


eudia, 


V. 


€&$* 


evdeta 


.em 


evdets 


evdeiai 


ema 



Note the change of the stem-ending v into € in the declen- 
sion of these adjectives, gen, and dat. sing., and plur, through- 
out; also the non-contraction of 4os in gen. sing, and of 4a "m 
neut. plur. 

Two Adjectives of the Second Form are irregular in sing. :— 



froXv- iroXXo- much. 

M. F. N. 

N,V, iroXfo iroKkri toX6 

G, woXXov ttoXKtjs woXXov 

D. woXXq) iroXXrj woXXip 

A. irok&v woXXov irok6 

P1ur. voXXoi woXXal woXXd 
regular, as if from woXXis* 



Iktya- peyaXo- great. 

M. F. ' N. 

fiiym fiiyakr} fjiiya 
[ley&Xw jj,ey&\7}$ fjLeydXov 

fieydty /j,eyd\7j fAey&Xqj 

fiiyav jj.€y&Xr}V fiiya 

piyaXoi, fiiyaXm judyaXa 
regular, as if from pdyaXos. 



*g(a>] ADJECTIVES: COMPARISON 



29 



{c) Third Form. 

In Adjectives of this form, the Masculine and Feminine are 
alike. Many have the stem-ending -es, which becomes i|s in 
nom/sing., and by the dropping of the cr in other cases (com- 
pare § 21, 1 5) causes contraction. Thus ; — 

Stem &Xi]0€S- true. 

Sing. M. and F. N. I Plur. M. and F. 

N. dX^s &\r}0h dXi?0(«ks)-«s 

G. &k?)0{&>s)-ovs akydovs &toi${4<av)-wp 



D. dXi?0(#)-«* dXijflet 

A. dX^fc^H dXi?0& 



dX^ets 



N. 
&\r,6(4a)-ri 

dXridrj 



Stem arm^tpov- sober-minded. 



Plut, M. and F. 
ffuxppoves 
crwcpphvoiv 

<rib<ppovas 
cdxppoves 



N. 
crdxppova 
ffW(ppbviav 
ffdxppocn. 
ffd)(ppopa 
crdxppova 



Sifig: M. and F. n. 

N* fftbcppMP <F&(f>pOP 

0. (Tlh<ppOPO$ ffd)(ppOVOS 
X>, ffdxppOVl ff(b<ppOVl 

A. ffdxfipova cruxppov 
V, cruxppov (TUXppOF 

It will be noticed that a nom. termination ~tav may be from the stem 
-0*t or from -ov, as shown in the Vocabularies by the Genitive Case, 
The former, however, occurs but rarely, save in Participles. 

28. Comparison of Adjectives, 
There are two general forms. 

First Form. 

Comparative -Tcpos -ripa -T€pov 
Superlative -TctTos -rarr\ -tctov 

(a) These terminations are added to the adjective stem, 

Thus S-r- 

«or6s faithful % eiyev^f noble, pad fa deep 

Turr&repos -roripa -rSrepop more faithful 
edyeviarepos -earTipa 'iarepov more noble 
@a0&repo$ -VTipa -drepov deeper 



3<> COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES [§ 28.' (a) 

and — 

m<rT6raro$ -Tordrrj -rdrarov most faithful 

eiiyevig-raros -mrdrri -ia-rarop most noble 

fiad^Tarot -vt&tk} -tirarov deepest 

(b) The stem-ending o (in the First Form of Adjectives) when 
preceded by a short vowel, is changed in the Comparative and 
Superlative into m. Thus :— 

troipfe, wise, vio$, new 

<ro(pd)T€po$ -a -ov wiser 

(rotpdsraTOs -7j -ov wisest 

vedrrepm -a -ov newer 

veihrarm -r\ -ov newest 

(e) The deelension of the First form of Comparatives and 
Superlatives follows that of the First Form Of Adjeetives. 

Second Form. 

Comparative in 4mv } neut, -iov (stem -iov) 
Superlative in -icttos, -£*nrt], -mttov 

(a) In this form the adjective stem is generally modified. 

ftiyas, great, Comp. fidfav (for fteyiw), once ^i&repos, 3 John 4. 

Sup. fJL^yicrrm, greatest* 

ra%i5s swift raxiw rdxwTos 

KaUs fair koKMw tcdMto-ros 

wohfo much ; pi, many vKelwv wXeta-ros 

{b) Several comparatives and superlatives are 'irregular,' i.e. 
formed from different roots. (So in English, good, better, 'best'; 
bad, worse, worst), 

dya&6rgood fiekrlw or icpelvcrw @4\ri<?ros or • Kpdnerm 
Kaicfe evil KaKlwv or %dpw K&Kiffro$ 

{MKp6$ little fMicpdTepos or iMevwv ik&XLffros 
Once i\axt<rrfrrepo$ * less than the least,' Eph. iii. g. 

(c) Comparatives of the Second form are declined like 
ffib&pw, except that in some cases contraction is caused by 



ml 



ADJECTIVES: EXERCISE 



g T 



popping the v. Thus ' pel$a {=^oa) instead of fidfrva, and 
pdfrvs (~^|"oet) instead of pielfrves. 

{$ Comparative and Superlative without a Positive i — 
{*p6 f preposition, before) wphr epos, former wp&ros, first 
Superlative without Comparative or Positive :-*• 
(0^of, height) 'tyuTTot, highest, 

29. Exercise VI. 
Vocabulary, 



Adjectives. 

Iftos, -a, -of, worthy (w. gen.) 
dirurros, -op, unbelieving 
Skates, -a, -of, just 
initios, -a, -o>, infantine 

irvlvparigflfe, -4 -6>, spiritual 
rlXeios, -a, -of, full-grown, 

perfect 
tijuos, -a, -of, precious 
ijrvx^K^s, -if, -<5f» natural (be- 
longing to the animal life) ; 



Nouns. 

aSucCa, -as, ^, unrighteousness 
a€T<Js, -ou, d, ££§•/* 
dirdrq, -??s, % <&££?? 
diraSox^, -^s, ^, acceptance 
■ypa^al (plur. of ypcupif}), Scrip- 
tures 
kirk°n*kp-*t -« ros * t5 ' promise 
0eXt]|ia, -aros, t4 wi// 
KaicCa, -as, $, malice 
KpCvoF, -ov, rb, lily 
crKOTCa, -as, ^darkness 
0"rr!pjj.a, -aros, t6, ^^rf 



See 
Notes 



Proper Names. 
0€<r<raXov£ici),.-'9?> 17, Thessalonica 
*Icrpa^X, indecl., Israel 
*IwdvvTjs, -ou, b,John 
SoXojjw&y, -iavos, 6, Solomon 



Rules. 

t» An Adjective without a Substantive expressed must be 
rendered with m##, woman, things etc. according to gender, 

2. The Article with an Adjective may often be rendered by 
the Personal Pronoun and the Relative, with the Substantive 
Verb. Thus, 'The faithful (one)' ' = * He thai is faithful.' 

|» The Copula is often omitted between the Subject of a sen- 



See 
Notes 



3* ADJECTIVES ■ ['§2 9 

tence and the Adjective-Predicate. Thus, The word '{is) faithful ': 
Greek order * Faithful the word," or The word faithful. 

4- The Object of comparison is either put in the Geni- 
tive Case, the particle than to be supplied in English ; or else, 
if the Particle is expressed in Greek (fl, the Object is in the same 
case with the Subject. Thus, He is wiser than the teacher, <ro0c£-. 
repSs itrrt rod 8i8a<r K &\ov } or awp&repbs itrn % b dt8<L<rtca\os. 

Translate : — 
I. els Tr&vras rofc dylovs. 2. dp Kaptlq, icahy Kal dya6y. 3. rb 
$4k7ifn rod Geou dyadbv ml riXetop iarL 4 oi Kpiral dkaioi ^aav, 
5. mo-rbs l 6 \6yos ml wdcrijs diroSoxys Afros. 6. 6 ritrrbs iv 
iKaxlrrtp* fcal B iv woXXy* wurrbs icriv. 7. oiic t<m 8ovXos 
futi;<ar rod Kuptov* 8, &m* vGfia fv X tKbp Ka l Un trQfia tp € v- 
fiarucbvi. 9. ivruf dwlarov 7 %elp<av. 10. fiLtcpSrepop wdvrwv rQp 
<nreppAttw* icrrL II. rb, neyiera Kal rlfita iirayyiX^ara. 
12. $ xjjvxh vXeibv 9 iari rrjs rpo<f>rjs. 13. oi ftadrrral 'lijaov 
wXeiovs 10 9}o~av rQv n rod 'Iw&vvov. 

1 Supply the copula is. 2 Neuter, ' the least thing.' » 'Also,* * Neuter 
lit. 'that which- is much.* «' Master.' « "There is.' 7 ' An unbelieving 
(one) , =an unbeliever. « Lit. * than all the seeds/ i.e. < than all the (other) 
seeds '—a frequent form of speech. 9 Neuter, thing implied, 1° Con- 
tracted form of *AeiWs, see § 28 (c). n Art. implying- noun. In Eng. 
idiom, * those of John.' 

Render into Greek : — 
I. He was full of faith and of the Holy Spirit. 2. The 
Holy Scriptures are true and pure. 3. Many prophets and 
righteous men were in the days of the kingdom of Israel 1 
4. O full 2 of all unrighteousness and deceit ! 5. Be ye infants 
in 3 malice and full-grown (men) in 3 wisdom. 6. The words 
and deeds of the disciples were holy. 7. The least in the 
kingdom of the heavens was greater than John. 8. They were 
more noble than those in Thessalomca. 9. He is fairest 4 of 
the sons of men. 10. The darkness was over 5 all the earth. 
II. Solomon was wiser and greater than all the kings. 6 

1 SuPPfr articIe - 2 Voc. not always used in such sentences, as if ellipsis : 
=0(w)' thou that art full.' s Express in by simple dat. * Superlative 
followed by a gen. ■ ml with ace. 6 See note 8 abov?, 



§ 31. -I] ADJECTIVES AND NUMERALS 



33 



30. Additional Adjectives ; for Practice. 



♦ # 

* 



These Adjectives should be declined by the student, in gen* 
der, number, and case j the comparative and superlative should 
also be formed, The Adjectives may be combined, for exercises* 
with Substantives given in previous Vocabularies. 



&KWV, -oucra, ~ov, unwilling 
dpxa-tos, -a, ~ov, ancient 
Scktos, -if, -6v } acceptable y pro- 
pitious 
!X.€xli€pos» -a, -ov } free 
€v8t?s, -e?a, -u, straight 
tikewpos, -op, well-timed, sea- 
sonable 
icaivds, -^, -bv, new, fresh 
Xo^iscos, -•$, -bvj rational 
(xaKpd?, -<£, -&>, Z^-, distant 
jxc'Xas, -cum, -<w, <$/#£>£ 



jA«pos, -dj -hv, foolish 
8<rios, -6a, -toi'j ^0<?k 
wcvijS, gen. wiv/jro 1 ?, poor, needy 
mcrrcs, -^, -bV} faithful 
trXovcrioSj -ia s -toF, rzV/£ 
trpaos, -of, or irpaus, -eia, •#» 

o-T€¥os» -i}, -6p, narrow 
•uit^koos, -ov f obedient (not 

contracted) 
4»povtp,03, -01^, prudent^ wise 
tym§4\% -h, false 



31. Numerals. 
I, Cardinal and Ordinal Numbers, up to Twelve. 



els, one {a 1 ) ; 
Svo, two (/5'} ; 
Tpcts, three {y f ) ; 
T€crcrap€S, _/*wr (5') ; 
fplwr^five (e') ; 

Imrd, wz^» (f) ; 

oict® ? d^/ (17') ; 
kwi4a f nine {6 ! ) ; 
S&a, te# {4'} ; 
SvScica, eleven (ia') ; 

S^Scicaj f twelve (if?) ; 



irpcoTos, first 
detirepos, second 

rpiroSs third 
rirapTos $ fourth 
7r$fiwT0S $ fifth 
iKTo$% sixth 
$pdoftQ$, seventh 
6y8oos, eighth 
ipparos $ ninth 
54i€aTos $ tenth 
ivditcaros, eleventh 
8wMtmTos f twelfth 



'N^jte. --Tiie letters of the alphabet in the' above table are used as numeral 



1 Twice SeieaSvb, Acts xix, 7, xxiv,' 11. 



34. NUMERALS. Ci 3I..I 

mg n*» mad in many editions of the Greek Testament denote the chapters* 
They should therefore be learned as far as given, also k 9 ao and ^ # 30 ; but 
it is unnecessary to burden the Memory with them further, especially ; .a§ 
modern editions mostly employ Raman numerals, The letters proceed by 
tens after t' and by hundreds after p'=sxoo. An accent after a letter m_ com*' 
bination of letters marks the numeral u%c ; and to denote thousands the ac - 
cent is placed below and before the letter: /a » 1000, ,£=32000, etc* Tixe sign 
for 6 $ in place of a letter {digamma) dropped from the alphabet, is called 
stau f and is found in old editions of Greek books as a contraction for err* 
Thus , irCv—etrTiv. Intermediate numbers are expressed by combination 
and addition. Thus, ir'*si6 ; A^.^37 ; xfs"'=666 (Rev. xiil 18). 

s. The Cardinal Numbers from 10 to 19 are formed with 
the termination -84kci= -/<?<?/&, connected with the units (generally 
modified) by mi $ and, Twenty is efrcooa. In the succeeding tens 
the termination -kovto. answers to »ty. Thus rpL&Kopra thirty, 
C A hundred 1 is marSw^ the succeeding hundreds having the 
termination -kootuh. Thus dtaicdcnoi two hundred. * A thou* 
sand ' is x&loi, € ten thousand .' jivpioi, or pLvpids -ddos a my- 
riad, 

32. {a) Of the Cardinals, €ts f .Tp€is.T4orcrap€s are declined, and 
agree^ like Adjectives, with the Substantives to which they he- 
long. Like eh are declined Qu8ei$ $ p7]deis f no one, (neut.) nothing. 

M. F. M* M, F* N* ' 

N* cfj fda $v me B* hi /uq, ivl 

G* h6t /juas h5s ■ A. fra f^la0 If 



m. and F* n* 




M. and F» 


N. 


N, rpm rpla thre$ 




D. Tpmi 


rpivt 


G* rpmv rpm¥ 




A.* rpets 


rpla 


U. and F, N. 




M. and F. 


N-. 


N. ritr (rapes fin era pa . 


font 


D. r4<r<rap<ri 


riir<rap0 t 


G# recedpeav . T€<rcrdp(tiv 




A* recrcrapas.. 


ridtrapa 



Most of the numerals are indeclinable^ hut 8vo has a dative, 
liiiTt, and those ending in -tot (hundreds) are declined like plural 
Adjectives of the First Form, Thus, 5tcwc6<7tot -at -a/x^Xtat, -at -a, 

<£) The Ordinal Numbers, excepting Be^repog, tpdopos, 
^SooSj all end in -ro$* r and from 20 onward in -ocrr6s. (declined 
..like Adjectives)* Thu4» efcwrfc twentieth^ iKarwrds hundredth* 



33] MUMERALS. . 35 



S3* Exercisi VII. The Numerali. 

Vocabulary. 

fojpfe, -oD, 6, field 
#pT©s, -ov, $, dread, loaj 

SlICTVOV, -OV, TO, W<?/ 

fros, -oys» t6, j<?#r 
"lovSas, -a, hi Judas 
ly$v% -t/oj, 0, yfoi 
jaccttos, -4 -6*», j^// 
ffc^jv, icwpfo, 0, month 

%Xot, -ou, 6, multitude^ sum 

.total 
traiSapiOv, -ov, t6, /bi<^ 
irapd (beside), with (dat.) 



frap0lF©S, -ov, jf % virgin 

tf-dpparov, -ov, t6 $ . Sabbath, 
week (sometimes plur.) 

o-vvaY«'y^, ^s, fy synagogue 

4»vXaK^, -^r, % watch, (esp. of 
the night) 

X#% -as, i), widow 

%pda,, -as, ^, ^^ 

iSSe, adv., ^rdJ 

%»a, -as, ^, ,tar 

&s or &<xel t adv. (with numbers) 
about, as 



Rules. 

1. In compound numbers the largest is placed first, with or 
without KaL See 12, 16, Sometimes two numbers are combined 
in one word. See 15. 

2. The numeral ets sometimes has the force of an emphatic 
indefinite article. See 4. 

3. 'Day/ iifiSpa, is often omitted in phrases like { the first 
dayofthepassover,* 'the first day of the week.' In the latter 
phrase, fda } one, is sometimes used instead of wp&Ty}, first (car- 
dinal for ordinal). 

After numerals of which the application is well understood, 
other substantives may be omitted, the article being prefixed to 
the numeral, as 'the Twelve,' (a) 9. 

Translate;— 

rf. 4v6$ &m %pd®. 2. 'lotidas ets twv dddeica. 3. 4v fuq. 

tup ffvmytoym, 4. &ro waMpwv h &de, 5. MoHcrwrai iv t$ 



36 NUMERALS; PRONOUNS [§33 

dypcf. 6. rpe?s iirl l 8v<rl Kal 5tio iirt l rpurlv. 7, fry rpia ml 
fiTjves ££. 8, oik eltr^F •rXet'oF 2 ^ dproc 7rA>re /cal !x#i$es 5tJo. 9. 
0? dddexa <riw 'I^<roO ^«rai>» 10. ^ fr^Xos dvofidrwy «s atar^r 
etf/co<n. II. &> r$ Sewipq. f} iv t% Tpiry <pv\aKjj 77}$ pvktSs* 12, 

rb SIktvop %v fiearbv l%9{)<av fieydXav, iicarbv wevrrjtcoPTa rpimw. 
13. fiia i}ixipa, wapk n Kup% 4 iffriv ws 5 %^ La % rr l> Kal xikta £nj 
u?s 5 rffxipa /da. 14. %v 8e wad &pa %ktt), 1$. %r}pa fy . ws irwv 
dydorjKQPTaTe&Ciapojv. 1 6. 64 Ka Kal oktc!? 'in}. 

1 Against. 8 Used adverbially, therefore not conformed to subst. ? With. 
* Without article, answering to O.T, Jehovah, 5 As. 

Render into Greek : — 

I. He was a man of 53 years. 2. The Eleven {disciples under* 
stood) were in Galilee. 3. Are (there) not twelve hours in the 
day? 4, (It) was about the sixth hour. 5, (There) shall be 
five women in one house. 6. In * the seventh month, on l the 
twelfth (day) of the month. 7. The seventh day 2 is the Sab- 
bath of the Lord. 8. On the first (day) of the week. 8 9. 
Five of (4k) the ten virgins were prudent, and five foolish. 

^Express by dat. without preposition. s Say 'the day, the seventh.* 
8 Show the different ways in which this phrase may be rendered. 



PRONOUNS. 

34, Personal Pronouns. First Two Persons 

First Person— 
Sing. Plur. 

N. iy&, I fact's j we 

G. iftOV Or fJLOV TjfJlWV 
D. ifAol Or flLOL 7}fMV 

A. ip.i or pt,e 4}fAa$ 



Second Person — 

Sing* Plur, 

o*i;, thou i)[A€l$, you 

(rod or <rov tifAwv 

(rot or ffoi iffuv 

a4 or ere i?p,a$ 



For the Third Personal Pronoun, he, she, it, the three 
genders of an adjective- pronoun -sire employed : airos 3 self. 



I 35] PERSONAL AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS 37 







Sing. 






Plur. 






M. 


F* 


m 


M* 


F. 


N. 


N. 


mvrSt 


a#nj 


miro \ 


mdroi 


aural 


aird 


a 


adroO 


dirrji 


avroO 


mvrQw 


mvrwp 


avrwp 


D. 


avrip 


a§r§ 


mirip 


a§Tots 


aurmt 


avroii 


A, 


aurSw 


air^p 


a&ro 


adrovs 


avrd$ 


mird 



Reflexive PPOllOlins combine the Personal Pronouns with 
the oblique cases of au-nJs. In the singular, the two are written 
as one word. 



First Person. 

Sing. 
G. ijJLavTov, -rjs, of myself 
D. ifiavTQ_ t -$, to myself 
A. ifxavrov, -ijv, myself {oh},) 



Second Person. 

Sing. 
veavTov, -%, of thyself 
<reawip, -§ , to thyself 
<reavr6v, -ijv, thyself (obj.) 



The plurals of these forms are written separately. Thus, 
rjfuap avr&v, of ourselves ; bjuv avrois, to yourselves, etc. 

Third Person : of himself herself itself etc.— 







Sing, 






Plnr. 






M r , 


F. 


N. 


M. 


F. 


...... ^w; 


a 


iavrov' 


iavrrjs 


' iavrov 


^ai/rwp 


iavruiv 


£aurw 


D. 


iavrip 


iavry 


iavrip 


iavrots 


iavrais 


. iavrots 


A. 


iavrov 


eavn^v 


iavro 


iavroh 


iuwds 


eayrcf . 



This Reflexive Pronoun is sometimes written without the e, as 
%vt®v, avTov, etc. , and is only distinguished from the cases of 
avtos by the aspirate. 

Occasionally this Reflexive Pronoun is used for the first and 
second persons plural, ttjp iavrQv <rwT7}piav f st your own 
salvation " (Phil. 11. 12), 

35. PossessiV© PFOaoUlIS are declined precisely, like 
Adjectives of the first form ? and are as follows j— 

First Person, ^6 j, i^, lp,bv t my 
■■„ ■ iufifrepos, ^fteW/wi, Jiftirtflov, out- 



38 



DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS 



t§35 



Second Person, o-6s, <ri§, a-6w, thy 
,, vfiirepost ifieripUj ifiirepoP, your 

There is no Possessive Pronoun in the New Testament for 
the Third Person, the genitive case of adr6$ or of iavrov being 
used instead. Thus, vibs iavrov, or avrov, Ms §wnson % i.e., the 
son of the person who is subject of the sentence ; vlh avrov, 
his son, i.e., the son of another person* 

The genitive eases of the other Personal Pronouns are also 
used most frequently with the force of the possessive. 

36. The Demonstrative Pronouns follow the model of 

the Article. 

They are— {a) Bde, ^f$e, 

(6) odros, afsTi), 

(d) o avr6s, ij avrfa 
(a) @§tos is thus declined (stem, tooto-). 
Sing, 

M. F. N. 

N, odros atiry} tovto 
G. rofrrov ra^rtjs rotirov 

D. TO$T(jJ Ta&TT) TO$T({} 

A. rovrov tw6ttiv tovto 

The accent distinguishes the feminine of the nominative singular and 
plural, avTYj, aUrai, from the corresponding cases of aw-nk, viz., avrif, avrat. 

(6) 6 aM$ in all its cases is only ®vt6$ (§ 34), with the Definite 
Article prefixed. The neuter plural, nominative and accusative^ 
is sometimes written rafrrd, being distinguished by the coronis 
(§2) as well as by the accent, from return, these, neuter plural 
of odros. 

(c) The Demonstrative Pronouns of quality^ quantity and 

number. 

Quality, roipSros, rotatfnj, Tmovm t suck 

Quantity , tq&qvtqs, Twn&nn, roffovro, so p*mt V 

Number % rwrovtoi, rcxraurat, iwavra, so many] 



r6Be, f 


this (here) 


TOVTQ^ 


this (near) 


iK€?FQ 3 


that "(yonder) 


VTO-) s 


the same 




Plur. 




U. 


F. 


N. . 


odroi 


adrai 


ravra 


roinrmp 


ro&nap 


rovrmw 


TQ&TOLS 


ratirais 


ro&rots 


TO&TOVS 


rairm$ 


ravra 



i$S(<0] KMLATIVM PMOtfOUm 89 

37. (*) The Relative Pronoun, H <j, 6, wA* or wAfcA, is 

thus declined :— 



M. 
N* ^ 
G. oS 
D. % 
A. «' 

(I) An Indefinite relative, whoever, whatever, is made 
by combining the enclitic tis with fa, f , 0. '^M parts of the 
word are declined, as follows i — 



Sing, 






Flur. 




F. 


N. 


M. 


P. 


N. 


1 


8 


of 


at 


£ 


%s 


00 : 


cSf 


<Sv 


i&P 


V 


♦ 

V 


oh- 


att 


oft 


fy 


B 


ofjf 


At 


ct 



M. F. ' N. 



Plur. 

M. F. N. 

otViyes a'tnves driva 



The nominative and accusative neuter singular is divided -as above (some- 
times by a space without comma), to distinguish the word from the con- 
junction, pti, that. 

The other cases (except the Ace. neut., like the Norn.) are not found m 
the N.T., but an old genitive masculine singular form, otov, is used only 
in theadverbial phrase £<■>? orov, as long as, *»tf/(Matt. v. 25, etc.). 
1 

(c) Sometimes the relative is declined with the particle -irfp 
(marking emphatic identity), and means the very one who ; 
sometimes with other indeclinable suffixes, e.g., tow who indeed. 

(d) Derivative Relative Pronouns. 

Quality 1 rfos, such as 

Quantity : Saos, so great as 

Number t foot, plural of foot* m many > as 

88. (a) The simple Interrogative Pronoun is rfc;W; 

who $ or what ? Its declension is identical with that of the 
indefinite nt.(§ 12), except that in the interrogative the t of the 
item-syllable is accented throughout. 



40 



ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS 



[§ s§ m 



(b) Other Interrogative forms are employed, correlative to the 
pronouns under § 37 {d) } and, like them, denoting quality, quan- 
tity, and number. They all prefix the letter ir- to the relative 
forms. 

Quality* voTos, of what kind '? 

Quantity, iro<ro$, how great $ 

Number, w 60-01, how many ? 

{c) Indirect interrogatives prefix the letter 6- to the 

direct forms beginning with the letter w. 'Oxotos, of what kind? 
is the only one of these employed in the New Testament. 

DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. 

39. These are mostly declined like Adjectives, and ' are as 
follows : — 

(a) SXXos, &\Xq, d\\o, another (numerically) 
Plur, &\\oi, &XXcu, &XX01, others 

(b) frepos, irepa, 'irepov, other (different) 
Plur. $repot t ?repcu, 'ire pa, others 

(c) To these may be added :— 

dfi.<p6r€poi t -cm -a, both (only plur.) 

(d) dXX^Xtw, of one another \ used only in the genitive, dative, 
and accusative plural. 

(e) gtcaiTTos, iK&arr), %m<rTOP, each} used only in the singular ; 
with doubtful exceptions, in Phil. ii. 4 ; Rev. vi. il. 

Table of Correlative Adjective Pronouns. 





Demonstra- 
tive. 


Relative* 


Interro* 
gative* 


Dependent 
Interro- 
gative* 


Inde- 
finite. 


: Simple * 

Quality * 
Quantity 


TOLOVTOS 
TOCTOVTOS 


otos 
©<ros 


irotos 

TTOCTOS 


* # * 


TIS 

# & • 



Note.— Rules for the- construction of Adjectives 
are followed "also by Adjective Pronouns, 'The 



§40] 



EXERCISE: VOCABULARY 



41 



Relative agrees with its Antecedent in Gender, Number, and 
Person,' {Third Concord), its case being determined by its own 
sentence, 



40. Exercise VII. 
Nouns, Adjectives and Pronouns, 

with el/xl. 
Vocabulary. 



Nouns and Adjectives, 
&ya\\£aaris, -e«s, ^» exultation 
dXi|0€i.a, -as, r}> truth 
&vd<rra<ris, -ews, i), resurrection 
Sav€ior"Hjs, ou, 6, creditor 
8i|ids, -A, -6^, «£#* (opposed 

to &/?) 
HCtccuos, -0/0, -aiop, 'f^A/, /wj/ 
lgov<r£a, -as,' % authority •, 

power 
ipt|ji,os, -of, desert t or as subst. 

i-ptjfjLos -0U5 17 

€^ayy€Xtov, -ou, r6, Gospel 

€"uXaP^s, -cs, devout 

*HX£a$, -ouj Elijah 

lipuv- -ov, t6 (neut, of !ep6s, 
^0/p), Mtf Temple 

"lovSatos, -ata, -a?os>, Jewish t 
as subst. m. ajew^ fern, with 
art. Judcea 

jccupos, -00, 0, season, oppor- 
tunity 



tcaT&Xtijia, -arcs, r6, lodgings 



inn 



|np<Ss, -A, -67, a&j, withered 
'2v(jb€<6v, 6, indecl. Simeon 
Xapa, -&$, fa joy 
X€ip, %eip6s» ^, &ww? 
Xp€6)^€iX€Ti|S, -ou, 6, debtor 

Prepositions. 
hmrcmv (used as prep.) gen., 

/» the sight of 
tcewd (gen.), against 
|wt4 (gen.), w//^ 

Adverbs, Conjunctions) 
Particles, 
mi, always 
84, to, and (never first word 

in a sentence) 
Ik€i, there 
KctC, and, even, also ; re . . . 

/cal, &?M . . . and 
qv (before a vowel ouk), not 
pj.'ify w/, in suppositions 



Rules. 



I. Subject and Predicate. («) The Subject, when a 
Personal Pronoun, is often omitted, being implied in the person 



Notes 



4 2 EXERCISE VII » RULES [I 40* 1 <«) 

of the verb. Its insertion denotes special emphasis. See 19, 

20. 

(b) A plural neuter Subject often takes a singular verb. See 

9* 

(<:) The Subject is often marked by the Article. See 2. 

2. The Cases, (a) The Genitive is often employed instead 
of a Possessive Pronoun. See § 35, 

(*) The Zteriw after the different parts of the verb elfii de- 
notes possession. Thus, *F* Aaw would often be in Greek, 
See There is, or ar<j fc *w. So for * A certain creditor had ^ two 

Ixl debtors ' the Greek is * Two debtors were to a certain creditor.' 

Notes n ±r- 

-> See 3, 4. 7> * 8 - . ^ , ?*> 

(c) For the cases as governed by Prepositions, see the several 

Vocabularies and § 68. The same Preposition often governs 
different cases in different senses. 

3. The Article, (a) The original Demonstrative force of 
the* Article is shown by its frequent use as a Pronoun of the 
Third Person. Thus, for 'And they said,' the Greek has 
« And the (persons) said. 5 The Article with a Participle further 
exemplifies the same use. Thus ' He who is ' would often be 
expressed in Greek by ' This (man) being.' See 8. 

(6) The Article is used with Demonstrative Pronouns, and 
must immediately precede its Noun ; also with Possessive Pro- 
nouns. See 10. It is often repeated before Adjectives and 
Adj. Pronouns, as in 13, 21. 

(0) Before Proper Names, the Article generally implies that 
the person or place is well known, or has been mentioned before. 
See II, 16. 

Translate s— 

I. (brat xccpd cot Kal dyoKkiavis. 2. 'ludwys 4<rrl rb tvojia 
airrov. 3. oM %v airroh t6wo$ 4j> t$ KwraMfmru 4. %v AvSpwiro^ 
ip'IepovffaK^fi, $ 6vo/j,a l 2vfufa,-K(d 6 HvdpwTos odros Skates *al 
evXaj&fs. 5. 20 el & Xpietbs b vlbs tov Gcov. 6. 2i> *t 6 fiaaiKris 
rwp'Iovdalw. 7..M *oi into tooin-, 8. & & to per ipoO «ar 
ipov iffriv. 9. h-oifxd Am wdvra. 10. rtevov, cri) w&VT&re /*er| 
ifwQet, ml wfom t& ifd, <rd ienp. 1 1, iv imimis rats %t*4pMf 6 



§ 4i to] 



THE VERB 43 



lu&vvns fj V iv rf iftw r^f lowaaf«. 12. ulo£ ctVt rov O«0, tu* 
Arocrrrfcrew viol feres. 13. Jcetl 3* to* Mpoves koX * %dp avrev 
4 *e£t& ^ £?pd. 14. Tfy pa<Ti\€las avroO ovk torn rAos. 15. 
faav U BUaioi AtfArcpoi Mwiov roO Qmv. 16. iroXXal %%><« 
$rw # reus ^pau 'HXIou 6> r£ 'I<rpa?fX. 1 7. *>* <^% «" a 
X670S tturoO. 18, 8i5o xpm^iUrai. ^av tapetirnj nvL 1$. fr- 

^jtt V rdx^ ^jueV, 20. vjuets 3 £<rre fjdprvpes roirmp. 21. d « 

*catp6s 6 tipLirepos w&prori iffnv iroifim- 
1 Supply wot, 'whose name was/ See above, 2 h 8 Render «rt*. 

« Authority » was the element *> which the word subsisted. 8 Note the 

emphasis of the pronoun. 

Render into Greek s— 
(In general, place the verb at the end of the sentence). 

1. My children are always with me. 2. Mine 1 are thine, 3 
and thine are mine. 3. That man was more righteous than his 
brothers. 4. Who art thou? 5- Those who are 2 with us are 
more than those who are against us. 6, Thy word is with (in) 
authority. 7. Their opportunity is not ready. 8. We have 
many debtors. 9. Another 3 Gospel, which is not another. 
10. Thy word is truth. 11. This (man) is poor, that (man is) 
rich. 12. Those men were not obedient to the word. 13. 
Both {of them) were prudent and meek. 14- The c®untry in 
which they were is desert. 15. On < one of those days He was 
in the Temple. 

1 Neut. plur. ■ See § 40, 3* s I*, * different (so-called) Gospel 
which is not (really) another ; because there can he no other. In. 



THE VERB, 

41, [a) Greek verbs are of two main forms* or Conjuga- 
tions, called for convenience (from the termination of the First 
Person Singular Present Indicative) Verbs in « and Verbs in |u. 

id) Verbs are inflected in Voice, Mood, Tense, Number 
and Person. 



44 



THE VERB: MOOD AND TENSE [§41(4 



(e) Voices. These are three, Active, Middle, and Pas- 
sive ; the Active and Passive as in other languages : to love, to 

be loved ; the Middle generally reflexive 1 to love oneself. 

Neuter (or Initiative) Verbs are sometimes of Active, some- 
times of Middle form. Verbs of Middle form with Active 
meaning are called Deponent, 

(d) Moods. These are five: Indicative, Imperative, 

Optative, Subjunctive, and Infinitive. 

The Indicative asserts or enquires : He loves, Does he love? 

The Imperative commands : Love ye. 

The Subjunctive is conditional, sometimes interrogative : If he 
love, May he love ? 

The Optative is properly a division of the Subjunctive ; the 
subjunctive of the historical tenses. 4 He asked if he loved* 
Sometimes also the Optative expresses a wish ; hence its name. 
May he love t 

The Infinitive expresses the action or state denoted by the verb, 
as itself an object of thought. * To love is Divine,' ' Seeing is be- 
lieving. 1 Hence the Infinitive may be called the Verbal Noun. 

(e) To the above must be added the Participles, which are 
Verbal Adjectives, i A loving hearts i.e. a heart that loves. 
* Having loved His own.' Another form of Verbal Adjective, 
distinct from the Participles, denotes duty, capability, quality^ 
and the like; as Moveable,' ' pleasing,' ' blessed.' 

(/") Tenses. These express time and state : in time, pasi f 
present and future ; in state, indefinite, imperfect and perfect. 
Hence nine possible tensesj of which the Greek has seven. 



£ Present 
j Past 
C Future 
/• Present 
5 Past 
v Future 
£ Present 
jPast 
t Future 



Indefinite, 

Indefinite, 

Indefinite, 

Imperfect, 

Imperfect, 

Imperfect, 

Perfect, 

Perfect, 

Perfect, 



(wanting). 
He wrote. 

He will write. 

He is writing, 

He was writing, 

(wanting). 

He has 'written* 

He had written. 

He will ham writtin. 



§42^)] THE VERB: INFLECTION 45 

This last occurs only once in N.T. The tenses wanting are 
supplied in various ways. 

The general names and order of the Tenses are as follows :— 

Present (Present Imperfect), Imperfeet (Past Imperfect), 
FutUPe (Future Indefinite), Aorist (Past Indefinite; also other 
uses), Perfect (Present. Perfect), Pluperfeet (Past Perfect). 
The Future Perfect need not here be included. 

The Present, Future, and Perfect are called Principal Tenses, 
the Imperfect, Aorist and Pluperfect, Historical Tenses. 

(g) Numbers and Persons. These are as. in other lan- 
guages. Classical Greek has the Dual, which, as not found in 
N.T., is not here included. 

42. Methods Of Inflection. It is essential to know the 
Verbal Stem. This may end in a (short) vowel (Vowel- 

stems) or in a consonant (Consonant-stems). Of Vowel 

stems, those in i and v are inflected without contraction, those in 
a, c, and o involve contraction. Consonant-stems may end in a 
labial s a guttural, or a dental. See Table, § 3 (a). 

(a) The Terminations are appended to the Stem, and in 
the First Conjugation are the same for all verbs, combined with 
the stem according to the laws of euphony. See § 3 {d), 

(b) Augment, The Historical Tenses in the Indicative 
prefix the letter I to a verb beginning with a consonant (« sylla- 
bic augment'). When the consonant is p it is doubled. An 
initial vowel is lengthened (' temporal augment ') changing a 
into ij, € into x\ or ct, into <», I into 1, and v into v. So with 
the diphthongs ; ai becomes t|» av becomes t|v» and 01 becomes 
<p, €u is generally unaltered, sometimes t|v-. 

* (c) Reduplication. The Perfect Tense in all the moods 
repeats an initial consonant with i , as from stem Xv- Xg-Xv-, 
from YpeuJ>-,*yeYpc4-, or' lengthens an initial vowel as in b. A 
double initial consonant sometimes takes only i, as from kt-, 
Ikt-. An aspirate (see § 3) reduplicates with the corresponding 
sharp i as from c|hX- irccfnX. A few forms are irregular, for which 
see Vocabularies. The Pluperfect sometimes (rarely in N.T.) 
prefixes the Augment to the Reduplication ; as from Xu- IXcXn-. 



46 VERBAL TERMINATIONS [§42(4 

(d) Verbs compounded with Prepositions almost invariably 
take the Augment or Reduplication after the Preposition 

and before the proper Verbal Stem. 

(e) Tense-ehaPaeteriSties. A letter between the stem 
and the termination is called the Characteristic. These are, 
chiefly, cr in the Future and (First) Aorist l Active, k in the Perfect 
and Pluperfect Active, and in the Future and First Aorist 
Passive. These characteristics often modify the stem-letter 
vowels being lengthened, and consonants combined or assimi- 
lated. See the several Paradigms. 

Lexical Forms. In vocabularies and lexicons, the 1st pers. sing, pres, 
hid. of the Active Voice is generally given. Some Concordances, however, 
as Bruder's, give the infinitive present. The English infinitive is almost 
invariably used ; as ' Key (a, to speak.' More strictly, it should be ' I speak* 
or ' am speaking.' But the usage will occasion no difficulty to the learner. 

4*3. Verbs in -<u. Scheme of Terminations. 

The following Terminations are affixed directly 
to the Verbal Stem. 

Note that the Middle and Passive Voices are alike in four 

tenses :— -Present, Imperfect, Perfect, and Pluperfect. 

Accentuation.-— The accent of Verbs is generally thrown as far back as 
possible. Observe, however, some exceptions in the following scheme. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 
Active — 

Sing. -w, -etf, -et ; Plur. -opw, -ere, -ov<n{v). 

Middle and Passive — 

Sing, -o^cu, -r} t -erai ; Plur. -6/X€0a $ -wd^ -ovrai, 

ImperfecTj with Augment. 
Active — 

Sing, -w, -«f, -*(p}| Plur. -ojnw, -erf, -of. 

Middle and Passive — 

Sing. -6fMiv, -ov, -€tb; Plur. -6jUL€0a t -ec#e, -wro» 

1 Ffr the Stmod A®rist, see hereafter, § 46 c 



I 43 ] VERBAL TERMINATIONS 47 

Future (compare Present). 

Act Hit*— 
Sing. "*» •*«#* -*« I Plur - -^W '*«"*i •*«**(*)• 

Middle — 

Sing. -ffo/Mi, -<rg t -#eratj Plur. ■vbp.eOa, -<re<r0e, -aorrat* 

Passive — 

Sing, -tifaofuu, -Ofay, -0i§o-erai ; 
Plur. -dn<ro^eda, -dtfcreo-de, -dfoovru* 

First Aorist, with Augment. 

Active — • 

Sing. -<r«, -fl-aj, -o-c(f) ; Piur. -(rajie^ -erare, -ow. 

Middle— 

Sing, -vd/iyy, -ff®, ~<raro ; Plur. -a&fieda, -<ra<r0e, -cravTO* 

Passive — 

Sing. -0?p, -#^s, -^ J Plur. -%te?, -%r€, -^aw 

Perfect, with, Reduplication. 

Active — 

Sing, -jca, -/fas, -/ce(i') ; Plur. -*a/A€i>, -/care, -KO(n(v)> 

Middle and Passive- 
Sing, -fiai, -out, -rat ; Plur. -we#a, -<r#e, -wot, 
Pluperfect, with Reduplication and (sometimes) Augment. 

Active — 

Sing. -w», -*€«, *«.; f -ictt/i*?, -kwtc, -Ke(i)<raj> 

Middle and Passive— 

Sing. -fiTjp, -a-o, -r© } Plur. -/xeda, -<rd* f -vtq, 

Imperative Mood. 

Present. 
Active — 
Sing. (2nd pers.) -e, (3rd pars.) -fata; Plur. -ere, -irwew. 

Mii.dk and Passive— 
Sing. (2nd pers.) -©v, (3rd pers.) -4<?0w* 9 Plur. w%» -e?dwa*', 



WBMBAl TEMMINATmm [| 43 

First Aorist* without Augment. 
Active — 

Sing. >0W» -<n£rw; Plur. -<rare, -ffdrmar. 

Middle ~- 

Sing. -ermt t ~<rd<r&(a ; Plur. -ow0«, -o-d(r^a?«raP. 

Passive — 

Sing. -0riTi t -0#rwj Plur. -0??re, -0^twcw. 

Perfect^ with Reduplication (compare Present). 
Active — 

Sing. -Ace, -Kero>j Plur. -Here, -Kfrway, 

Middle and Passive — 

Sing. -<ro, -<r#w ; Plur. -cr0e, -vdwmv, 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Present. 
Active-^ 

Sing, -w, -17J, -y; Plur. -ayeep, ■ip-e," -wtrtfi'). 

Middle and Passive — 

Sing, -wjuai, -#, -ijrat ; Plur. -d/ieda, -rja-Oe, -tavrai 

First Aorist, without Augment (compare Present). 

Active — 
Sing. -o-w, -tr^s, -<r#; Plur. -<r(a/jt,ev t -<n/fe, -€Mi{v). 

Middle- 
Sing, -ow/tai, -077, -on/rat ; Plur. -(rc6/Ae0a, -cnivBe, *<Ftamai* 

Passive- 
Sing. -6 'u, -^s, -0$ ; Plur. -dwfxev^ -0fre, -#«<rt(>') ) 

Perfect, with Reduplication (compare Present). 
Active— 

Sing. -KW, -iq$ t *#; Plur. 'Ktafiev, -m}te t -Kmity)* 
Middle and Passive -Made by Perfect Participle with subj* of 



§433 VERBAL TERMINATIONS 49 

Optative Mood. 

Present. 
stctive- — 

Sing. -oifii, -o«, -04 ; Plur. -oifiev, -aire, -oiev. 

Middle and Passive — 

Sing. -olpy]P f -oto, -oiro ; Plur. -oifjceda, -ourBe, -olvtq. 

Future (compare Present). 
Active — 

Sing, -aoifii, -crois, -<rot ; Plur. -ffoifiev, -voire, -aoiev. 
Middle — 

Sing. -ffoljnt}v f -aoLo f -aoiro ; Plur. -<rolfMe6a, -<roi<T0e, -ctoivtq 
Passive — 

Sing. -d^ffoifxrjVf -Ofooto, -d-qaotro ; 
Plur. -dTicrotfjieda, -0tf<Toi<rOe, -0^(toivto, 

First Aorist, without Augment. 
Active— 

Sing, -vaifu, -<rcu$, -<rai ; Plur. -(rai/xev, -cratre, -ffaiev. 1 
Middle — 

Sing. -<ral[i7}P, -<raio, -gcuto j Plur. -cralfieOa, -aaicrOe, -<raiVTO. 
Passive — 

Sing, -delrjv, -0efys> -0elv, Plur. -dei-rj/xev, -SeLrjTe, -0elr}<rav* 

Perfect, with Reduplication (compare Present). 
Active — 

Sing, -icoifii, -KOLS, -kol ; Plur. -koi/jicv, -/cwre, -KOt€P. 
Middle and Passive — Perfect Participle with Auxiliary Verb. 

Infinitive Mood. 

Present. 
Active, >eiv ; Middle and Passive, -€<r$cu. 

Future. 
Active, -<reiv ; Middle, -aeadai ; Passive, -0j}&e<r0at. 

» The termination -eiav (^Eolic), for third person plural, is found twice in 
the New Testament (Luke vi. u ; Acts xvii, 27), 

D 



50 VERBAL TERMINATIONS £§43 

First Aorist, without Augment. 
Active -<rcu; Middle \ ~aw0ai; Passive, -dfyw,* 

Perfect, with Reduplication. 
Active, -icipai ; Middle and Passive, -<r0at. 



Participles. 

Present. 

Active, m. -w ; f. -ovcra j n. -w. Middle and Passive, -bpevos, 

-opkivfi, -Sfievov. 

Future. 

Active, -awv, -<rov<ra, -aov ; Middle, -<r6fJLevos, -aopfrr}, **6psv.ov\ 

Passive, -Bvjffbuevoi, 'drjffOfjLiv^, driffb^VQV* 

First Aorist, without Augment. 
Active, -<ras, -ffctw, -aav ; Middle ■, -trdfievos, -ffafiivfj, -<r&ftevwy 
Passive, -0ei$, -6ei<ra, -dtv. 

Perfect, with Reduplication. 
Active, -#ct6s, -Kvta, -k6s ; Middle and Passive, -pivot, -ph^, 
'j/Avov, 

Verbal Adjective (see § 41 e), -t6s, -t^, -rbv. 

44 Paradigm of the First Conjugation. 

The foregoing scheme of terminations is applicable to all 
verbs in -<a, as in the conjugation of the verb following .— 
Stem, \v- to loose ; Mid., to loose one's self, or get loosed % 

Pass., to be loosed. 

Active Voice. 
Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. / am loosing. 
S. Xt*#, XiJeis, Atfei; P. Uopev, Xi/ere, \&ov<ri{v). 

Imperfect. I was loosing. 
S. ikvov, IXves, i\ve{p) ; P. ikfofiw, £\fere, ifrvov, 



I 44] VERBS IN" O :■ PARADIGM 51 

Future. I shall or will loose. 
S. \tou 9 Mffm, \6ffei ; P. XtiffofjLev, Xfoere, \fomm(p) 

First Aorist. / loosed. 

S. IXuo-a, IXwrat, $\w€(v) ; P, iM(rafiev t iXfoare, ikwap. 

Perfect. / ^aw loosed. 
Sing. \4XvKa s XiXvtcm, X£\uice(p)} 
Plur, XeXtimfiep, XeXtitcare, XeXi//ta<«(i») # 

Pluperfect, i" had loosed. 
Sing. (^XeXikeei>, (i)XeX6K€is, (i)XeX^K€t; 
Plur, (4)Xe\tKctfiev, (^XeX^etre, (/)Xe\ifce(i)<rar, 

Imperative Mood. 

Present Tense. Loose (continuously).. 
S. Xt/e (ib&?<? thm) t Xvir® (lei him loose) j Plur. Xtfere, Xvirwrav* 

Aorist. Loose (at once). 
S. Xyoroi', Xt/a-cirw ; P. XtJcrare, Xvo-drwo-ai'. 

Perfect, /fczv /a0j*d?(i.A, remain so). 
S. X4Xme $ XeXvKiros ; P. XeXmere, XeXvKirwav, 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Present Tense. / may loose* 
S. X$«, Xi%s, Xi;^| P. X$&[i€v s Xt^re, Xi;W(rt(^), 

Aorist. / may loose, or db// have loosed. 
S. XiV«, Xt$<r$s, Xfay j P. Xticr&fiep, Xti<r7]T€ t X4crw<n{tr) t 

Perfect. / may have loosed. 
Sing. XeX$K(a, XeX?k#s, XeXtiicg % 
Plur. XsXtiKWfAw, XeXik^rt, XcXifcw^j'). 

Optative Mood. 

Present (or Imperfect). / might loose. 
S. Xtfotiu, Xi/cks, X^ot ; P. XTJOLfxev, X?/0f<re, Xt5oie*>. 

Future. I should loose. 
S.\fooifu t X&roi?, X^oi| P, >faomw t Xi/cmre, Afoote* 



IP FM^BS IN it : PARADIGM [§ 44 

Aorist . / might or am to loose. 
Sing* Xfoatfu, Xi5<rats, Xtfcrat ; 

Plur* Xvcrmfiep $ Xu<FaiTe f Xmmev or €iar* 

Perfect {or Pluperfect). I might ham loosed* 
Sing, XeXuKotfii, XeXtf/eois, XeAikot ; 
Plur. XeXwcocjuep, XeXwcoire, AeAikoteP# 

Infinitive. 
Present, Xi/ccf, /a /oar*. 
Future, X&rew, to be about to hose, 
Aorist, Xdnai $ to loose immediately* 
Perfect, XeXwepcu, to have loosed* 

Participles, 
Present nom., XtJav, Ximv$a, f X9op 3 loosing. 
Future nom., X$<T(av 9 Xucrot/tra, Xvaw, about to hose* 
Aorist nom* , Xiarn , Xtf awa, Xd(raw $ having* loosed* 
Perfect nom., XeXvKtl)s 3 XeXvicvta, XeXwc<5s, having mow loosed; 
stem XcXvkoix 



Middle and Passive Voiees— Forms common to tooth. 

Indicative Mood, 

E\</ Present Tense* / am loosing myself ] or being loosed. 

Not#s 

' >S* X{?OfJLai 3 Xl5# Or«€£, X&€TM | ¥• \v6fJt£0OL 9 X^€(T0€ $ XvOPTm <~~ 

Imperfect. / was loosing myself or being loosed, ^ 

S* iXvSfUfjp^ iXvov $ iXvero ; P. 4Xv6fi€0a $ iXu€<r0e $ iXvopro* 

Perfect* I have loosed myself or £«» loosed, 
S* XiXvfmis % X Ai/oxu, XiXurm ; P. XeXvfieda $ XSXvtrde^ XiXvvrm 

Pluperfect / A<m? loosed -myself or £«» loosed. 

Sing* (^AeXt//*^ (^XAwro, (^Auto ; 

Plur. {4)X€Xtifi€0a $ (4)XiXmde f (i)XiXvpro. 

1 Some pure verbs insert 0" before /a and t (3rd pers*) ; as ieAf£»* See 
Vocabularies, 



Note 



1 44] VERBS m Q : PARADIGM 53 

Imperative Mood. 

Present. Loose thyself, or be thou loosed* 

Sing. (2nd pers.) Xi/ou, (3rd pers.) Xv4ad<a ; 
Plur, \6earde, XviaQwaav or -iadwp. 

Perfect. Have loosed thyself or been loosed ' {i.e. , remain so). 
Sing, XAwo, XeXtiaBat ; Plur. XiXvaffe, \ek6<rd®<mp or -ffdow. 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Present. / w^j /<W£ myself, or fo loosed, 
S. Xdtafxai, Xi%, Xi%tc« ; P. XvibjxeBa, Xtiy)<T0e, XtiuvTai , 

Perfect. / #z<zy i<m? loosed myself, or A?^ loosed. 

Sing, XeXvfihos 5, * XeXvfihos rjs, XeXu/x^os # ; 
Plur. \ehvp<&ot, &jxev 1 XeXv^vm fre, XeXt/AteVoi tSa-t^). 

Optative Mood. 

Present. / #2^/ /<?&r<? myself or & loosed, 
S. \voifJLrjv s X3oi,o f Molto ; P. Xvoifieda, XiJotcr^e, XtJoti'TO. 

Perfect. / might have loosed myself, or &?<f# loosed. 

Sing. XeXv t u,ivo$ efop, XeXvpJvos el'^s, XeXvfiivos eiy ; 
Plur. XeKvfJL&OL et^fxev, XeXv/xiyot e%re, XeXv/Jifoot, etij&av. 

Infinitive. 

Present, Xi)e<r0at, & /0<w<?n oneself or fc loosed. 

Perfect, XeXi/<T0cw, & &*w loosened oneself or &£» loosed. 

Participles, 

Present, Xv^epo?, Xvo/juivij, Xvbp,evov, loosing oneself 6r fca^ 
loosed. 

Perfect, XeXvfiivQs, XeXy/*^, XeXv^ipov, having loosed oneself 
or ^^^ loosed. 

1 These forms are made by the perfect participle, with the substantive 
verb * A? ^# ' as an auxiliary. Compare § 47 £. 



54 VERBS IN Oi PARADIGM [§44 

Forms peculiar to the Middle. 

Indicative Mood. 

Exi Future Tense. / shall or will loose myself, 

*—* 3. Xt5co/«u, \ij<rrj or-et, Xtfcrrrai j P. "Kvab^da^ Xt/crecr0e, Xfaopmi, <g^ 

First Aorist. / loosed myself. ^ 

Sing. e'Xwd^F, £\«5<rw, <?Xi5<xaT0; 
Plur. iXv(rd/x€0a, iXti<rao-0€ f iXdaavro. 

Imperative Mood. 

First Aorist. Loose thyself (at once). 

Sing. (2nd pers.) Xwrcw, (3rd pers.) \v<rfaQ<a\ 
Plur. Xti&acrde, \vff&<j0mav or -dvdwv. 

Subjunctive Mood. 
First Aorist. I may loose myself or shall have loosed myself 
Sing. Xtiaoofiai, Xi;<xf?, XiJc^rat; 

Plur. \v<T(hjH.€da t Mff1](T0€ f XfiffWVTM, 

Optative Mood. 

(Or, Subjunctive of the Historical Tenses, ) 

Future. / should loose myself 

Sing. Xwoifxrjv, Xticroio, Xijctqito \ 
Plur. Xvaolfieda, X6<roi<r0€ i Mqtolpto. 

First Aorist. /might, or am to loose myself* 

Sing. \v(ra,itMi?iv f Xj$<tcmo, Xi/<ratro ; 
Plur. Xvaxd/ietfa, Xwrattrle, Xwratp'ra. 

Infinitive, 

Future, Mffeadat^ to be about to loose one's self 
First Aorist, X$<ra(f0at, to loose oneself immediately* 

Participles. 

Future, Xv<r6fievos } Xwofxiprj, XvvbpLevov, about to loose oms$lf 
First Aorist, Xw&pevos, Xy<ra/4^, Xwdjuciw, having loosea 
oneself 



§ 44 ] VERBS IN it i PARADIGM 55 

Forms peculiar to the Passive. 

Indicative Mood. 

First Future Tense. 1 1 shall be loosed. 

Sing. XvBr}<ro}MU, \vdfav, XvBrjfferai ; 

Plur. Xi/0?7<r6/Ae0a, Xvdr)ff€ffBe } XvB-qaovTM. 

First Aorist. / was loosed. 
S. iMdi}P t iMBrjs, £M&ri ; P. iM0VI*er, Atffyre, Ai50JfW. 

Imperative Mood. 

First Aorist. Be thou loosed (at once). 

Sing. (2nd pers.) UBwh (3'd P ers -> ^dfr® ; 
Plur. Xb07jT€, XvdijTUffap, 

Subjunctive Mood. 

First Aorist. 1 may be, or shall have been loosed. 

S. Xv0u t XvBrjs, Mi ; P. XvB^t-v, XvByjre, XvBQ<ri{v). 

Optative Mood. 
Future. / should be loosed. 
Sing. Xvdrjaoifiiiv, Xu^^troio, XvBJ)<toito 5 
Plur. Xvd7jffoip.ee a, XvdJjaourde, XvOfyotm. 

First Aorist. I might be, or am to be loosed. 
Sing. XvBei-qv, XvBel-rjs, XvBeiifj ; 
Plur. XvBdrjfJt.ev, XvBeltjTe, XvBelev. 

Infinitive. 
Future, XvBi}ffe<rBm % to be about to be loosed. 
First Aorist, XvBrjvcu, to be loosed immediately . 

Participles. 

Future, XvOipofievos, -*>?, -ov, about to be loosed. 
Aorist, XvBeh, -eiaa, -iv % having been loosed. 

» Some pure verbs insert <r in the Future and Aorist Passive before 0, as 
kmvm t ttkeiw, puo/juu. See Vocabularies. 



56 



VMRBS IN H 



t§ 45 



Verbal Adjective. 

Xtnr5t, -■$ , -6p f that may be loosed ' soluble ' {not in N. T«). 



45, Exercise VIII. Pure Verbal Stems— t or v. 



Vocabulary, 



Verbs. 

&kovw, hear, i Aor. pass. 
7}Kowdr}v ; perf. act. d/c?f/coa 

diroXv&>, release 

PcuriXciiw, ra^w 

SouXcvw, ,sm>£ 

icXawa, lament, fut. /cXaiWw 

jcXcCca, &$«/, perf, pass. KiicXeuF- 
Mat ; I aor. iic\el(rd7jv 

p,v5f||i.ov€V(a, remember 

irurrdto, believe 

•rroXiTcvofJicu (mid.), act the citi- 
zen, hence, m&r Afo //*/& 

irop€vop,ai (mid.), go, journey 

p^op,ai (mid.), deliver, i aor. 
pass. 4ppva-07jp 

o-aXevo), j^t&&? 

Prepositions, Adverbs, and 
Particles. 

ircpC (gen.), a*W/ 
tcard (aec), according to 
M (ace), upon, over 
kvavriov (geo.), before 
&f £«*$, worthily 
Sio/ru wherefore t 
p,QVQV, only 
irXifjv, except y but 



Nouns and Adjectives, 

dpcp/irtos, -of, adj., blameless 
Secnrdnjs, -ou, 6, master 
Sucaicofjia, -aros, r6, righteous 

decree, ordinance 
Svvapis, -ews, % power, might 

OvydrTjp, -rpds, % daughter 

iKavos, -->;, op, sufficient,, com- 
petent 

ip-ds, -avros, 6, thong 

A»t, 6 (indec), Z#Z 

jxaicdpioSj -la, -lop, blessed 

6p€ivd$, -tj, -6p, mountainous^ 
i) opetpiq, the hill country 

Trovijpds, -&, -6v, evil; 6 wopy}- 
p5$, the evil one; rh woPTjpdp, 
the evil 

71-pocrwTTw, -ov,t6, countenance, 
face 

crirovS'/j, -17s, J), haste 

o-vfxcfiGiyCa, -as, 4 music ( "sym- 
phony ") 

£ird8?]p,a, -aros, t6, sandal 

)(opds, -ov, 6, dance with sing 
ing { ll chorus") 



§451 FEMES IM lli EXERCISE §7 

Rules. 

The references are to the Greek sentences. 

1. The Cases. The Accusative is, in general^ the case of 
the Object, and is governed by Active Verbs. 

2. The Genitive on' Accusative may be used after the Verb 
&/coi5w, to hear. Compare I, 2, % 

3. The Verb bov\eiw % to serve, as a bondman, takes the 
Dative. See 7. So also iricrTeijw, to believe. See 12. 

4. The Infinitive often depends upon an Adjective. See 9. 

5. A Participle is often used as a Predicate after the Sub- 
stantive Verb. See 16. 

6. A Participle with the Artiele may often, be ren- 
dered by the Relative with a Verb. See 11. * Happy (is) the 
(woman) having believed/ Happy is she who believed. 

Translate :— 

9g 6 I. ris icrnv odTos, wepi o§ dkoi/w Tomdra; 2. 6 moimv vfiQp 
E ^ ifjiod d/costki. 3. tficovcre avfMpmias Kal %o/>tDj\ 4. ctTroAikre, /cat 
—*&iro\v$i/j<r€crd-€* $. pvp airoXfais row dov\6p (rov^Mtnrora^ t€arh rb <p — « 

pi]fid tiQU $ iw eip^py. 6* teal patnXeticr.ei, iwl top oIkqp r iaKw(i els i\l 
rods rnQpas^ 1 Kal rrjs fiatTtXelas avTou om &rrai riXos* 7. m warpi Notes 
t£kpop o"up i/Aol £do£\€v<T€P els rb eumyyiXiop* 3* duyaripes. 'Iepou- 
<ra\^, fiij ./cAalere £ir £fi4 9 TrXrfp £<[> iavrks /eXaiere Kal iwl rk 
rifewa v^Qw, 9* ok eifil umvos Xd&*m row ifidpra tQp vwGSfjfjidTmp 
mvroih' ■ 10. fiprjfioP€^€T€ tt]s ywumbt Ac6t.- II* piaKapia jj flricr- 
T€ti(ra<ra. 12* 8mH om iwicrreticraTe mrip; 13* ^opop &j*lm rod 

■ edayy eXtov rod Xpicrrof} iroXt,T€ij€<r&€* 14* iwope^di} 2 as rtyp dp-ei** 

■ ■ FTjP fi€T& <nrov57}$* 15* $j<rav d& . 81kcuoi d/i</>6r€poi. .iwavrigp rod 
0€ou, wopevbjjAPQi iw w&crais rats iprqXals teat SiKaahfia^i to§ 

KvploV &fl€fA7TT0l. l6, rb TVpQffWirQV mVTQV ' fjv W0p€'il6iA€PQP 8 eft 

lepovcraX^/M. 17* p&rcu fjfias awb rod WQP7]pod* 4 1 8* «!■ dvp&fiett 
tQp otpap&P <raXev0ri<rQPTai. ig® 4] 0$pa K&Xeurrat. 20.'adro2 5 

■ " l **To the ages" —forever* % Fern, nom. understood, s Elliptical J 
■{as though' he were) .going/ * Masculine -or neuter. - See Vocabulary. 

Of both, the genitive is alike. In apposition with v\p,*L% understood*' 



58 VERBS IN a [§ 46 

Render into Greek ; — 
I. Happy are those who believe. 2. They have heard the 
Gospel with great joy. 3. The earth and the heavens shall be 
shaken. 4. They were going to Jerusalem. 5. Serve ye the 
Lord in peace. 6. Thou didst not believe my words. 7. The 
word of the Gospel was believed in that day. 3. There are of 
you some who believe not. 9. I have believed that Thou art 
the Christ. 10. We will serve Thee, O Master. 

Verbid forms for further exercise, from the Gospel by 

Luke ;— 

iJKOvmvy &Kovtr<u t AkovHt tacrav, <Uowr0#reT<u, &Tro\e\vfi6nriv, 
diroXi/o-u, patrCKevaai, ttc\aiov, iK\eiad7j 1 irarret^apres, iwope^Orj, 
wopetio-ofLai, pvcrdivras, crwahevixivov. 

These forms should be parsed* and the meaning given. 



46. Consonant Verbs. 

Strengthened Forms and Second Tenses. 

(a) Many Verbs, especially those with consonant stem- end- 
ings, have, in the Present and Imperfect Tenses, a modified 
or Strengthened form ; a letter, or in some cases a syllable 
being added to the Stem. Thus :— 

Stem tot- Pres. ri/irrw, 2 strike Impf. irvirrov 
Xnr- \dwo3, I leave £\wwov 

Trpa-y- irpa<r<ru, 1 do gwpacnrov 

Xap- Xafip&vu, I take iX&nfiavov 

In Verbs like irp&ffffw (sometimes written irpdrrw), the gut- 
tural stem-ending is said to be softened. Instead of -crcr or 
-tt the guttural softened into fc occurs in some Verbs ; thus 
from Kpo-Y- comes icp&fc, -2 cry out. Occasionally, alk>, a daital 
is replaced by |-, as from «J»paS-, 4>p&fa t 2 telL 

A verb ending in -£a> might therefore be formed from a guttural or a 
dental stem. The distinction appears in the Future and other tenses. 



I 46 {/)] CONSONANT STEMS: SECOND TENSES 59 

(b) As a general rule, the Tenses of the Verb, the Present and 
Imperfect excepted, are formed from the simple unmodified ver- 
bal stem. The chief exception is in those Verbs which insert a 
vowel in the stem-syllable (like XeLirw, from Xwr-}, which retain 
that vowel (sometimes again modified) in several tenses. 

(e) Very many ' strengthened ' Verbs, and some others, form 
a Second AorlSt from the simple stem, its meaning being 
generally identical with that of the First Aorist. In the Active 
and Middle, the Second Aorist is conjugated like the Imperfect 
(like the Present in other moods). Thus, in the four Verbs 
above given, the Second Aorists are, Act. irvwov, (hivov, &ya- 
•>w, ikafiov. So in the Middle, with the termination -o{i,t|v. 
In the Passive, the Second Aorist is conjugated like the First, 
with the termination -^v instead of -0yjv. 

(d) in the Active Voice a Second Perfect and Pluperfect 

occasionally occur, the terminations being like those of the 
First, with ic omitted. In some Verbs the Stem in these second 
tenses is modified, with a special meaning', as from rrel0ta t I 
persuade ; 2 Perf. ir6roi0a, / trust. 

(e) Some few Verbs have also a Second Future Passive, 
formed from the simple stem, and corresponding in meaning 
with the First Future. 

A Thira Future, reduplicated, is sometimes called Future Perfect or 
Paulo-past Future, Middle or Passive. It is found only once in the New 
Testament, Kejcpaforrai, wilt immediately cry out, rec. text, Luke xix. 40, 
and may therefore be unnoticed in succeeding paradigms. 

(/) Occasional Stem-Changes. In the Second Aorist 

the First Aor. Pass. Perfect, Mid. and Pass., € or €t in the stem 
is sometimes changed to a. Thus <rrp*0w, / turn, 2 Aor. Pass. 
iff T pd<p W i r/>tyv, I nourish; stem P €#- Perf. Pass. Participle 
T€0pai£jj.ivG$. 
Such occasional changes are shown, where necessary, in the Vocabularies. 



&0 FERBS IM a . t§ 47 



47. Mute Verbal Stems,— I, Labial. 

The Stem-letters if, p, $ are subject to the following changes 
when combined with terminations beginning with a consonant. 
See table, § 3. 

(a) With -cp they become t|r (see § 3, <5). Thus* from -yp^-, 
Fut. Act. termination -cr©, combined, ypdif/u). 

(b) With -jj, they are changed into another p». Thus, Perf. 
Pass, termination -pai : yl-Ypap-iuu. 

(c) A _/&/ labial (P) or aspirate (<j>) before -t becomes sharp 
(ir), the rule being that c a labial or guttural mute before a den- 
tal must be of the same order, J Thus, Perf. Pass. Ind. 3 pers. 
sing, termination «tq,i : y^-Ypair-Tot. 

(d) By the same rale, a sharp or flat becomes aspirate before 
-0. Thus, Stem twit-, 1 Aor. Pass. Indie, termination -0ijv : 
i-rvfy-drjv. 

{<?) The letter tc disappears after a labial stem-ending, which If 
sharp or flat becomes an aspirate. Thus, Perf. Act. Indie, re- 
rvw-Ka becomes ri-rvff>-a, 

(f) In the Perf, and Plup. Passive and Middle the 2 pers. 
plural ending -o-0g loses the or after a labial mute, and the modi- 
fication is as in (d)« Thus, from re-rw-aSiE comes rirytpde. 

(g) In the same tenses, the 3 pers. plur, endings -vrai,,-vTo 
cannot be accommodated to a preceding consonant. Hence 

.they are superseded in Consonant Verbs by the perfect participle 
with the pres. and past forms of the Verb dpC. Thus, 3 pers. 
Perf. Pass, of yp&cfxa, yeypafi^ivoL dcrl{v) ; 3 pers. Plup. Pass, of 
TvirTca, TervftfjifrQi f^aw* The Participle must agree in gender 
with the nominative of the Verb, Thus, the Utters have been 
written^ at iirurToXal yeypapipLivm cfotv. 

(h) A similar construction is used in the Perf. Pass. Subjunc- 
tive and Optative throughout, the sing, and plur. forms of the 
Participle being employed. The forms of el/d are :~™Subj. & y 
35, i? , Sifiev, Tfre, 3hti{v) ; Opt etrjv, e!%s, en?, etrj/xeVf efyre, eirjffav. 



§ 48] 



MUTE VERBS: PARADIGM 



6 1 



48. Paradigm of a Mute Labial Verb {Present 

strengthened), 

tvtttw. I strike. Verbal Stem tot-. 

The several tenses are conjugated in number ami person like those 

of "kijw. 





Active* 


Middle. Passim. 


[ndic* Pres. 


rvwrm 


TVITTOftat 


Irapf. 


irvwTQW 


irvTrrofifiv 


I Fut 


rvfm 


rv\pofiai rv(f>0^<TOfiat 


1 x4or* 


in? fa 


irufd^P irvipdriv 


I Perf. 


ririxpa 


rirvfifim 


l Pluperf. 


(i)rerv(peiw 


(i)T€TVflfMIV 


2 Fut. 




TVwrp'QfJLmi 


2 Aor. 


irvwow 


irvw6fi7i¥ irvwfiP 


2 Perf. 


riruim 




2 Pluperf* 


(i)T€TV7f€iW 




Imperative, Pres. 


T$TT€ 


TtjTTTOV 


I Aor, 


rutf/op 


rifmi rv<f>07iTi 


1 Perf. 


rirv<p€ 


rirvfo 


2 Aor* 


rvwe 


TWCOV TV 7^01 


2 Perf. 


rirvwe 




SUBJUNCT. Pres* 


TVWTta 


TVITTtofiai 


i Aor. 


Tvf^ 


Tljf(^fmi TV<p0B 


1 Perf. 


T€TV(f><a 


T€TVfJLfJLivO$ C& 


2 Aor* 


rvwm 


riwmfim rvwQ 


2 Perl 


rirvwm 




Optative. Pres, 


'rvirroi/u 


TWTTOtfMIV. 


I Fut, 


TvfoifU 


TVxf/otfMJV TV<p6l)<F0tfMIP 


1 Aor, 


TVIpCLlfU 


TVxf^atflTIV • TV(f)0€ll]V 


l Peri 


T€TV<f)QlfM> 


T€TVflfliPOS etrfp 


2 Aor, 


Tviroifu ■ 


rvitol^v Tvweifjp 


2 Perf. 


rerwwoifM 




2 Fut 




TwrqtrotfMiP 



62 


VERBS, . 


IN O [§ 4 S 




Active* 


Middle, Passive. 


Infinitive. Pres* 


rvwreiw 


Twwre&Bm 


I Put 


TV)f/€tP 


nj\//€(T$at TV<pd^@*€o°0m 


l Aor. 


rvfm 


To^a<r0ai rv<f>0rjpfu 


I Perf. 


T€TV<p4P0Ll 


rervtpdai 


2 Aor, 


Tvweiv 


tj5hw0cu tvwtjpwl 


2 Perf. ■ 


T€TVwivmt 




2 Put* 




rvwij<r€(r0ui 


Participles* Pres. 


TVTTTWP 


rwrr6fj[£Pos 


i Fut 


TV^WP 


TV$6pL6PO$ TV(p07l(f6pL€PQ§ 


I Aor. 


tv fm 


rvfdp*€¥o$ TVtpBeh 


I Perf. 


reru0c6f 


T€TVflfl4P0S 


2 Aor, 


TVWihv 


rvr6fi€Pos rvweis 


2 Perf. 


Tcrwrcfa 




2" Fut 




TVirqcrdfitPQt 



Conjugation of the Perfect Middle and Passive* 

Indie. Sing, rirv/ifiai rhv^/ai rfrvwrat, 

Plur. rervfifieOa rhv(j>de reTV^jievoi (at t a) el<rl{v) 

Imper. Sing. tItv\£>o T€rv<pdu) Plur. Tirv<pBe T€Tv<pd(aaav 
Subj, Sing. rervpifxivos (??, op) & rj$ y 

Plur. t€tvjj.,u,€voi (at, a) Cbfiep tyre Qcri 

Optative f as subj. with forms of elTjv. See § 47 {A) e 



Verbal Forms for Practice. 

See Vocabulary ', p.- 63. 

@\£wovT$s 3 (SkiTttxriV; rd fiXewdfieva, K€Ka\vfifihop t Kaktyare, 
ticpvipa, ikptj^rjt Kitcpvirrai, iire[i\j/€, TrifjLxpai, iTipupOrj, iXd^opiew, 
Xaj3(bv t etXijcpdjs, Aif^e<r0e, X&(3rj, Xa[i@&v6T€ r &7CT0v, flirrtyrat, &f^ % 
vwQ<rTp6\f/avTe$ s wefifflfrres, &Xeifai, ^Xei^oy s yiy'pcupa. 



1493 



LABIAL VERBS: EXERCISE 



63 



49. Exercise IX. 

VOCABUl^ARY. 
Some Active Verbs have their Future tike the Middle. 



Mute Verbs. 

dXe£<f>co, anoint 
Zee diroKaXfarra, reveal 
Ixl 4-nroKpvwTO), hide 
No i5fiirr», kindle-, dwrofmt, touch 

pX4ira>, see, look 

Yp&4>«>> write 

i|xpX€irw, look upon 

KaXvirTco, cover, hide 

K6trr<a i cut \ mid. (cut one- 
self), bewail 

tcpforao, conceal-, stem icpup- 

Xap.pdvca» fut. X^ofiai, perf. 

€tX7}<f>a, 2 aor. ^a^ov, 

take, receive 
■6iroo'Tp4<| >w > return 

Preposition, Adverb, Con- 
junction. 

wpd$ (ace), towards, to 

{a^j, »<tf (with subj). pp. 105, 

ill 
tva, that, in order that 



Nouns and Adjectives. 
d-ya-irtiTos, -i\, -hv, beloved 
FaXtXaCa, -at, §, Galilee 
IXatov, -ov, r6 (0/m:) «7 
l|i,dTiov, -ov, t6 (outer) garment 
icpdarircSov, -ov, t6, fringe, 

border y as of a garment 
Kptjia, -aro$, t6, judgment, con 

demnation 
Adfapos, -ov, 6, Lazarus 
Xwx v °S) -ov» o, lamp 
jjidxaipct, -as and -^s, ^, sword 
p,-upov, -ov, t6, ointment 
v^jmos, -ov, 6, infant 
trepunroTepos, -a, -ov (comp.), 

w<?r£ abundant 
nirpos, -ou, 6, P<?&r 
crKCiioSj cr/cei/ous, r6, vessel 
o"Ti]0os, <TTr}dovs, t6, breast 
0-Top.a, -aros, t6, mouth ; (of 

the sword) <?^ 
<tw€tos, -4 -6?, intelligent^ 

prudent 



See 

l\i 

Notes 



Rules. 

The Cases. I. Verbs of touching are followed by the 
Genitive (9) : the more general rule being * Verbs denoting 
the senses, except seeing, and sometimes hearing, have the 
Object in the Genitive case. ' 

2. The Dative is often the case of the Instrument; to be 



64 VERBS IN O [§ 49 

rendered in English with (3, 10), Sometimes it expresses that 
towards which anything is directed, as sight (12). 

Tenses. 3. The Aorist denotes a completed, the Imper- 
fect a continuous action (compare 1 and 4). See § 77, 1. 

4. The Perfect often denotes a past action of which the con- 
sequences remain. * It has been written/ and so remains; in 
English idiom * It is written * (see 8). 

The APtiele. 5- The omission of the Article marks in- 
definiteness. See 2 : not 'the wise/ etc., but 'some wise per- 
sons/ etc, 

6. The Article with an Adjective and Noun is often repeated. 

See 11. 

Translate :— 
I. Ttiwrovres eavr&v rh (rr^B-q vir4(rTp€(pov. 2. diriicpixf/m 
ravra airo <ro4>£>v kqX a , W€Twv i ml diremiXt/^us avrh rqTrlois. 3. 
i\aiip tt]¥ KetpcLkfy fiov ovk ijXeixpas' avri] 3£ itfpy ip^eixpi p.ov rovs 
w65a$, 4. ml viriaTpe^ev 6 'Irjcrods 4v rrj dvvdfiei rod ILvetifiaTos 
eh t^v Vakikalav. 5. odrot X^owrcu wepiu-aoTepov Kp?p,a, 6. 
(ickatov 8£ irapres, koX gfcdwrovro avrrpt. 7. kqX fjP rd pijfia 1 tovto 
K€KpvfifJLipov air afrrwp. 8. iv rip vbp,tp rl yiy pairrai ; 9. #aro % 
rod KpaairiBov rod Ifxarlov avrov. 10. QvSeh \tix v .° v # as ? 
KaXijirreL aiTov fficcfci. 1 1. Tr£fi\j/(jo rbv vlov fiov tqv ayairiqTbv- 
12. /cat <jTpa<fiei$ 6 Ktipios ivi(3\efe B r$ Hirpip. 

1 Word, in Greek, often signifies that which the word expresses. s ' She 
touched.' 8 From e^jBAe'irw, compounded with iv, the v being changed 
before the labial (§ 3 if), but returning before the vowel of augment. 



Render into Greek :— 

I. The Father sent His beloved Son. 2. All these things I 
^iave written to l you. 3. That which was hidden 2 from the 
jiges has been revealed to * the disciples of Jesus. 4. Many 
commandments are written in the law of Moses. 5. It is 
written, I will send to 1 them prophets and teachers. 6. Those 
who were sent 2 returned to the house. 7. Another servant was 
sent to 8 them. 8. Send 4 Lazarus. 9. Happy (are) the eyes 



1 503 GUTTURAL VERBS 65 

that see 2 the (things) which ye see. 10. Look ye to yourselves. 
II. That seeing they may not see. 

1 Sign of dative, 8 Use participle and article, s wpo$ with ace 
4 1 Aorist. 



50. Mute Verbal Stems. II. Guttural. 

Compare throughout with § 47, ' Labial stems ' : — 

(») With -cr the stem letters k y % become |. 

(Z>) Before -p. these letters become y« Thus from &yo>, I lead t 
the Perf. Pass, is tfyfiai. 

(c) Before -t the guttural letter becomes k, by the rule given 

I 47 (')• 

(d) By the same rule -0 requires % before it. Thus from &yw r 
I Aor. Pass. $x%p, and Perf, Pass. plur. 2 pers. jjx^ (comp. 

§ 47 d,f)> 

(e) A guttural stem-ending is aspirated in the Perf. Act., the k 
being dropped, as in labial verbs. Thus $%a. 

(/) For the 3 pers. plur. Pass. Perf. and Plup., also for the 
Perf. Pass. Subj. and Opt, see § 47, g h. 

(g) Two verbs of frequent occurrence take a Second Aorist, 
although the stem is not modified in the Pres. and Impf., the 
tense being distinguished from the Imperfect by a different form 
of Augment : l%w, I have, Impf. €l%ov> 2 Aor. g&xov : &yca } 
Impf. fiyov, 2 Aor. (redup. ) tfyayov. The verb* diddcr/aa, I teach, 
may be classed with guttural stems : Fut. &&££a>, 1 Aor. Pass. 
idid&xQw- 

The learner may usefully construct paradigms of verbs in the following 
Vocabulary, after the model of rvirrui, § 48, and by the aid of the above 
remarks. 

Verbal Forms for Practice. 

(See Vocabulary^ p. 66.) 

■ifyera, dx#$ere<r#e, dydyere^ 'ffx® 7 !} && v i &y(*>fuv^ &t6f ou<rt, 

SiwKdfievot, dediwyftivoL, o^tox^crowat, etxe, £fet, &rxe, etxofJLev, 

IXeye, \ey6jxeva, Xex#&Ta, Teray/xivot, riraKTat^ §ra^av t 0ei5£ercu, 

gfpvyovj tpvyeiy, 

E 



66 



VERBS IN O 



E§5i 



5L Exercise X. 

Vocabulary. 
Verbs belonging to previous classes are marked with an asterisk, 



Zee 
Notes 



%», lead, bring, 2 aor. ijyayov 
dvofyw, I aor. pass. dvei^x^Wt 
2 fut. pass. dvoiy^o^at, 
open 
dirlx® (bold off), be distant 
*diroXajj,pdv«, receive back 
8€'xo|WU» I aor. idegd^v, re- 
ceive, welcome 
SiSdcr.Kw, £?<&r/;, see § 5°£ 

IX«, te*?» see § 50 £*; fut., 
g£a>, the aspirate of x 
being transferred to € 

•fJK©, am come 

*(NJa>, slay, in sacrifice or for 
festival 

*K€Xcv«, command 

X£yco, jay 
*irop€iJG|MU» go 
irpdcrcrcd, fut. irp&&, do 

wpoo-€vx°H' ai » i 5 ^* augment 

irpocrnv- 
cnjvd"y», bring together, store 
Tapdcro-ttj perf. pass, rerd 

pay fxcu, agitate, trouble 
Tdcro-fti, arrange, set (in order) 
virdpx w » subst. verb, be (natur- 
ally or essentially) part. 
rh {/T&pxovTa, property 
<j>€v\«, flee, fut. <£ei/fojt«w, 2 
aor. £<pvyov 



Nouns and Adjectives, 

dirooroXos, -ov, o» messenger, 

'apostle* 
drotros, -ov, out of place, amiss 
ppapciov, -ov, rS^ prize 
IicaTovTdpx'ns, -ov, 6, centurion 
0ava,To$j -ov, 6, death 
icapirof}, -ov, 6, fruit 
fcXi]crus, -ews, ^, calling 
jaoctxos, -ov, 6, 17, «z^f 
iratStov, -^ouj t6, /*#/* <rfo7aT 
irapapoX^, -??s, ^, parable 
crtT€vros, -^-ov (com-fed)fatted 
ctkottos, -ov, 6, mark (aimed at) 
<jhXos, -ov, 6, friend 



Adverbs, Prepositions, Con- 
junctions. 

dv#, towards, above 
•ydp, for (never begins a sen- 
tence) 
lfo> % if', with relative 6s, soever 
lv (w. dat. plur.), among 
lir£ (dat.), upon 
^S-rj, now 

ita/rd (ace.), according to 
poLKpav, far 

$T€, when; otciv, whensoever 
irov, where £ 
ror^ then 
ibr© (w. ace), under 



See 
Notes 



§ 51) GUTTURAL VERBS: EXERCISE 67 

Rules. 

1. The Infinitive as the Object of another verb is con- 
strued with the sign U (see 2, 8). The Subject of the 

Infinitive is put in the Accusative case. In translating, the 
conjunction that may often be prefixed to the Noun, the In- 
finitive being construed as a finite verb. See Handbook, § 28s. 

2. Genitive Absolute. A Genitive, with a Participle 
expressed or understood, often occurs in a sentence absolutely, 
i.e. without dependence on any other words. See 10, 'he being 
distant,' i.e. when he was distant. See Handbook^ § 275. 

3. Particles compounded with &y, as Up, require the Sllb- 
junetiVO. Seen. 

Translate :— 

I. Kal ifyayev avrop els 'lepovcraXtfiJ,. 2. 6 'Iijo"ovs iKiKevffev 
afobv 0L%&r[vai wpbs avTov. 3. 6 tyjuv cSra amfciv amvirw. 4. 
oi>K £%ta wov <rw&%<0 rods jcapirmfc /*ov. 5. rb vepl ifiov riXos $x e{ - 
6. l%ouo-t MwuWa Kal robs ■wpo^rat" &KOv<rdr(a<rdv abrwv. 7. 

$ ee iXeye wapa^oX^p wpbs avrotis. 8. Ktipie, M8a£op rjfias Trpoaebxeudai. 

^ 9. H rerapay pivot icrri ; 10. ijdyj 8k avrov ov fianphv dwixovros airb 
No l$ t^j oMas tirefixpe irpbs abrbv 6 iKarovrdpxrjS ' <f>t\ovs. II. «» ^ <^ 
M^rat. tovto rb vatdlor iiri t$ 6p6/mltI fiov ipk ^%erat, 12. E\i 
/caret (TKOtcbv biihm els rb jfyajSetcw tt}$ &vm tcX^em 1 rod Qeov iv 
XpurrQ 'lyaod. 13. 6 adeh<p5$ crov Ijicet:' Kal 'idvaev irarrjp <rov 
rbv fiba-xov rbv virevrbv* 14. /cat yhp 2 4y£) &v0p(ov6s etfu vwb 
i^ovalav ravffdfjxvos, tytav i>vr i/xavrbv orpcmcarar ml Xiyos robrcp 
ILopet&TjTi, Kal wopeierai. 15. 6 yh.p fUKpbrepot* iv iraaiv ifuv 
inr&pxw, 0®t6$ iffTi j^yas. 16. rfrre ol iv rfj 'lovbaiq, Qevyiruaav 
eh rb, Spn> 1 7- r 4> Kpobovn dvoiyfjirerai.* 18. «J/ue, B.voi^ov 
riiuv. 19. dvetpx^ ^ ™ <rr6fM ahrov. 20. $£ta &v iirpd^ev 5 
&iro\afi.pdvofiep' oCros 5^ ouSej' drourov iirpage, 

1 'The calling above/ ^ heavenly calling, 2 «<u y«P» render simply 
for, the k<« being connective with a preceding sentence. s Art. with compar. 
'the less (than all others) ' ; he that is least. . 4 { It shall be opened,' a so- 
called impersonal phrase ; but see Handbook, § 171. 5 ' Things worthy of 

wfeftt we did,' the due reward of our deeds. 



Note 



68 VERBS IN n [§51 

Render into Greek :— » 

I. He was teaching in their synagogues. 2. The apostles 
taught in the Temple. 3. Knock, and (it) shall be opened. 1 
4. Lord, open g to us. 5. He that shall receive 8 you receives 
Me. 6. A certain man had 4 two sons. 7. The seven had 5 
her (to) wife. 8. Nothing worthy of death has been done. 9. 
Jesus spoke parables to the multitude. 10. They were troubled 
and fled. 1 1. The city was gathered together to hear the word 8 
of God. 12. Whensoever ye pray, say, Our Father (who art 7 ) 
in the heavens. 

1 Second Future. s First Aorist. 8 Participle with Article. * Imperfect. 
8 Second Aorist. 6 Gen. or Ace. ? Express who art by the Article. 



§2. Mute Verbal Stems, III. Dental and f. 

Compare §§ 47, 50, Labial and Guttural Stems. Simple 
Dental Stems are very rare in N.T., but the modified stem- 
termination -|, to be classed with these, frequently occurs. 

(a) Before -<r a dental stem-ending disappears. Thus, wel0(a s 
/persuade, Fut. weiaw. 

(b) Before -|&, -r, -0, a dental is softened into <r, as Perf. Pass. 
TriweicrfjLcu, 3 pers, Triweierai, I Aor. Pass, iweladrjv. Some- 
times before -8 the stem-ending is dropped. Thus, <r&pa t I savq 
l Aor. pass. €0-Mr}v t Fut. cw^^o-o/xat. 

(c) Before -k in the Perfect Active the dental disappears, as 

(d) The Perfect Participle Passive, with forms of the Verb to 
be % is used as in § 47 (< f, k. 

(e) In Verbs of this class, the Second Tenses do not, as a 
rule, occur. The 2 P6Pf.» however, is found in a few cases, as 
wiwoida, from weiOw, See § 46 d. The stem ira.0-, strength- 
ened into wdffx^i I suffer ; takes a Second Aorist, iiradov, also a 
Second Perfect, wiwovBa (as if from a stem ir€v0-,- the short 
vowel modified). 



§533 



DENTAL VERBS: EXERCISE 



69 



Verbs, 

JurirafjOfMU, salute 

pcwrrCJ©, baptize, bathe 
p\j0i|ojAcu, sink 
8o|d|6», glorify 
iiar©p€i5o|j,aij go out, proceed 
0atijjid|6>, wonder 
Ka8apC|ft>, cleanse 
|juty£dya> ? 2 aor. ifiadav, learn 
op£f&, determine, Perf. pass 

&pi<rjJL(U 

treWco, persuade \ mid., ^<?j> 

<ricavSa\C£a>, <r<22^ & stumble 
\ap t|op.ai, f bestow freely 



53. Exercise XI, 

Vocabulary. 

Nouns and Adjectives* 

Hires, -acra, -a?', gen. HiravTo^, 

etc., a// (together) 
dpurrov, -ou, r6, « meal (gen. 

morning) 
tKOTcuris, -e&s, tj, amazement 

('ecstasy 5 ) 
fjnrjSeCs, ftrjde/j.la, fX7}Biv, no one 
oXCvos, -17, '0v t little ; plur. /ke/ 
^X^°S, -ov, 6, multitude 

ttXolov, -oi>, t6, j/zij), &%*£ 
irvp, irvpQS, to, fire 
tv^Xos, -^, »6i% £/*W 
farcucxri)* "^ s j ^j obedience 



Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Particles* 

aXXd, £#/; aXkh teal, but also 

d, if; sometimes elliptically interrogative ( * tell us, if) 

8ri, that, because 

otyf, not, interrogatively 

•rrov, interrog., where f 

irpo (gen.), before 

•wpwTQV , first 

iwlp (w. gen.), on behalf of 

Rules. 

Cases. I. Verbs of filling are often followed by a Geni* 
tive of the material. See 2. 

2. The Genitive denotes attribute. See 13, * words of 
grace' —gracious words, 

3. The Dative is used of recipients, as of favour, see 
16,17, 



70 VERBS IN O [§53 

Moods. 4. The Subjunctive with p4 (and its compounds) 
is used in prohibitions. See 6. 

5. The Infinitive, as a Vepfoal Noun, may take the Article, 
See 16, 17. 

Relative and Antecedent. 6. Attraction. The Rela- 
tive is often « attracted 5 into the case of the Antecedent. Thus, 
in 18, the full construction would be 'from (the things) (gen.) 
which (ace.) He suffered. 5 Sometimes, in this construction, 

the antecedent is expressed; sometimes, as here, it is omitted. 

Translate :— 

I. ireireicrfiivos iarip 'Iwdppyjp * irpo<prjT7]P etvai. 2. Uvetifiaros 

1 Ay ibv 7rXr}u0^a-€Tai. 3. tVA^trow &/uf>&repa to wXota tucrre (3v0i~ 

fccrOai avrd. 4. 6 vlbs rod avOpdoirov Kark to (bpia/nhop 2 iropetie- 

rai. 5. ml (icoTa<ri$ £\afiev 3 diravras Kal tddj-afav s rbv 6eoP. 

6. Kal fAtjdiva Karh tt]p dSbv &a"ir&<nj<rde. 7, 7} vl<ms crov (rfotaici 

<re, 8. fxbvov wla-reve Kal ataO^CQ. 9. Ktipie, el okiyot ol <x«- 

ftfievoi; 10. &X\ovs eVwcrr (ruxr&Tta iavrbv, II. adrbs* vfim 

^awTicrei 4v Upetf/mn 'Aylip Kal xvpi, 12. idatfMMTtv on ov wpw- 

tov gfiawTladri irpb rod dplorov. 13. Kal idatfiafrv iirl rots \6y01s 

T7)$ x&P lT0 $ Tots iKTopeuo/xipoLS 4k rod ard^aros airrov. 14. ov%l 

ol dim iKa&apiadTjtjap ; ol 8£ ivvia Trod; 1$, /naKdpidf icrnv, 5s See 

idv /4 <rKavda\io-drj ip ipcol. 16. rv^Xots ttoKKoTs ixaplvaro rb ^ 

g-> (3\4wew. 17. it fiiv ixapia-07) to vw£p XpiaTod ov fxbpov to els .clMp 

Ixl iriiFTcfeip dXXd Kal to inrkp avTOv wdvxuv, 18. §/j,a0ev &(p' <bv 

Notes iwade t$v iraKo^p. 

1 Ace. with Inf. See § 51, Rule 1. » 'That which hath been deter- 
mined.' 3 Note the difference in meaning between Imperfect and Aorist. 
* Emphatic * He,' as distinguished from the speaker. 

Render into Greek : — 
1. Father, glorify 1 Thy name, 2. They glorified the God of 
Israel. 3. I will be glorified. 4. They persuaded the multi- 
tudes. 5. They will not be persuaded. 6. Some of 2 them 
were persuaded. 7. They obey not the truth. 8. He trusted 
in 3 God. 9 Trusting in 4 thine obedience, I wrote to * thee. 
10. They were all filled with wrath, 11. Many shall be caused 
to stumble. 12. On 4 you it has been freely bestowed to suffer 
011 behalf of Christ. 

1 1 Aor. » If. » iirl dat* * Sign of dat 



Notes 



Notes 



§S4l LIQUID VERBS 7* 

54. Consonant Verbal Stems— Liquid. 

The stem-endings X, |i, v, p, are but slightly affected by the 
terminations, and Verbs of this class will occasion but little 
difficulty. The following are the chief points to be remem- 

(a) The Stem is very frequently modified in the Present. 
Thus, from d W X- comes AyyiKKu, I announce ; from <£av- 
0cUw, I show or appear j from dp- ttfpw, / take or /(/? up. It is 
specially important, therefore, in this class to note the Second 

Lists. Tbe&m^P^,*^™^''*.^-*^ 
has Per . Act. and Pass., and I Aor. Pass., as if from |5Xa- 

m\i}Ka t pipXsifuu, ifMiOriv. _ 

(3) The Future Active and Middle (originally m -icrca, 
-lo-ou-ai) drops the <r and «wt*w* the vowels brought together. 
Thus, from ^ I judge. Fut. tprt (fo>m^^,^«). 
Mid. K^ovim (from Kptvtoow Kpwiopu). The conjugation 
of these Futures is as follows :— 

Act. sing. KpvQ, Kpivets, Kpivet : pi. K P ivov^ Kpivetre, Kpivowriv. 
Mid. sing. KpwodiMh Kpwei, Kpiveirm : pL K P ivotf*e9a f KpmurVe, 

KfilVQVPTM* 

(c) Some verbs in -J&. have a similar contracted Future ; as 
i\llfr, to hop, Fut. Ax«& This form is called the ^«« 
A«f««. ^™ (reduplicated from iwr-) has Fut. wovpu.- 

(d) The FiPSt AOPiSt also omits the o-, but may lengthen 
the vowel of the preceding syllable. Thus, from dyv&Xo, Fut. 
dryeXS, I Aor. tyy^ ; *** Fut. fort. I Aor. tyqro. 

M The Perfect Active, as |» and v cannot come before K, 
is of varied forms. In some Verbs v is simply tojM«fi- 
Kp£ra , Perf. «4cp«a. Others adopt the Second Perfeet, the 
vowel being lengthened as in I Aor. ; as from 4>al™, W#*~. S« 
Others form the Perfect as if from a vowel stem in e. Thus 
^», /fO»a», Perf. Act. pe^Ka (stem |nvc). Compare $157 c <— 

If) The Perfect Passive again varies in Verbs of stem- 
ending v-. Where this letter has been dropped in the Perf. 
Active, it likewise disappears in the passive. Thus, ztAcpwa, 
KiKpiiuu." So I Aor. Pass. iKflfhr, Fut. *,,«?*»>/««■ 0ther 



72 VERBS IN O [§ 54 

Verbs change v into <r, sometimes /*. Thus, from $»&>« (<f>av-) 
Perf. Pass, iri^aa-fiai ; from ^paivu, I wither (£t]pav-), Perf. 
Pass, i^pafifiau Here the I Aor. Pass, retains *>, as ifripivd-qv, 
Zypavd'ifia-QfjLai. 

55. The Verb -y£vo|*,at,, to become. 

(a) This liquid Verb, from its frequent occurrence and its im- 
portance, must be separately noticed. Its root is 7€v-, strength- 
ened by a kind of reduplication to yi-yev-, abbreviated to yiyv~, 
and finally softened into y,v-. It is a Substantive Verb 
like did, which denotes the fact of existence; yivo^i, the com- 
ing into existence. 

(b) Forms of this Verb in use in N.T. are the Present, with 
middle and passive terminations; the Future yev^o^ai, the I 
Aor. iyevidw (like pass.), the 2 Aor. iyevb^v (like mid.), 
Inf. yeviadcu, the Perf. yiyova (like a second Perf.), occasion- 
ally yeyivrjfMi (like Pass. Perf.). A very common form of 
the Verb is the 2 Aor. 3 pers. sing., iyhero, it came to pass, or 
with a noun expressed, became, came, was. The Optative 2 Aor. 
3 pers. sing, with the negative participle /«$ forms the phrase 
fiHl, yfroiTo, let it not be ; rendered God forbid ! Distinguish be- 
tween Imper. Pres. ylveade, become ye, and 2 Aor. yfreade, be 
ye* 

{c) This Verb follows the rule of the Verb to A?-— 'the same 
case after as before it.' See § 17, 2. 

50, Exercise XII, 
Vocabulary. 



Verbs, 

atpw, i aor. pass, tfpdrjv, take 
up, take away 

&irOKT€£v« r fut. -KT€PW, kill 

airoorlXXc©, I aor. dwio-TeiKa, 

send forth 
*&pTw», to season, flavour 
iydpo), i aor. ijyeipa, pass. 

iqyipS'Qif, raise up 



€KpdXX«, 2 aor. ili§^kov % cast 

out 
ivT&AojJwu, fut. ivTeXovpLcUi 

command 
94k&, imperf, ifdeKov, 1 aor. 

idiXrja-a, to will 
©cpCfca, reap 
KaTaKpivw, condemn 
*Kr$vvo-id t proclaim, preach 



.§■■#]' LIQUID VERBS: EXERCISE 



73 



kkivm, perf. /c&At/ra, decline 
|i,IXXc», impf. iffieWoM, to be 

about to be 
pmpalva, I aor. pass, tycopiv- 

0iiv, become tasteless 
ofeiXo), owe 
*ircpi,crd-€ve>, abound, to remain 

over 
d-ire^pw, i aor. gaweipa, sow 
*v?t08€X0|juh, receive as guest 
$afvo|iat (pass, of <j>aiv<t>), 2 

Aor. itpdvqv, appear 
<f»0dvca, i aor. %<pda.cra, come 

beforehand, arrive 
yjdpm, fut. xaptfaro/xai, 2 aor. 

i%dpiqv, rejoice ; imper. 

%a4/3e, x a ^re, hail I qx fare- 
well I 

Nouns and Adjectives, 
aXas, -aros, r6, j«/^ 
djAireXos, -ou, ^, sw#£ 
PacKXicro-a, -rjs, tj, queen 
"ycvid, -as, -37, generation 
*y©via, -as, 4 corner 
Sijvdpiov, -ou, rd, denarius, 

( penny * 
lo-irlpa, -as, 4 evening 
&rcpos, -ipa, -epw, another 



|vyos, -ov, d, yoke 
0d|i,pos, -ovs, rb, astomshmmt 
K€<f>aX^, -^?, ^ te^/ 
ktjttos, k^wov $ d, garden 
icXdo-^a,, -aros, rb, fragment 
K0KK05, -ov, d, grain, seed 
Kocrjios, -ou, d, world 
Kd*<fHvos, -ou, 6, travelling-basket 
Kpwrds, -^, -bv, secret 
Xfjpos, X^/jow, d, *y&. /#/£ 
{J.vfjfi.a, -aros, memorial, tomb 
votos, -ou, d, .wz^ ayzW 
oIktCpjawv, -oj>os, d, ^pitiful, 

compassionate 
ovpdvio% -ov, heavenly 
wXfjOos, nrX^dovs, t6, multi- 
tude 
iwJo-os, -Ay, -op, ^# w much? how 

great ? 
cnjfutov, -ou, rd| «£•#? 
<rlvam, -^&>s, rd, mustard-seed 
crrpcmd, -as, ^f, «r»y, ^j/ 
o-«TT|p(a, -as, % deliverance, 

salvation 
T€Tpdpx*rjS, -ov, 6, r^/<?r <?zw a 

fourth part, tetrarch 
^avcpos, -d, -bv, manifest 
yjrtm, -Qvos, d, vest, inner gar- 
ment 



Adverbs, Prepositions, and Particles. 
ifaC<(>vi|S, suddenly 
jj^ydXtos, greatly 

■ri j% a double negative with Subjunctive, expressing th« 

strongest possible negation. See Handbook § 377. 
»S (of time), about 
^rcC, «w if as 



^4 VERBS IN O t§ 5^ 

Translate : — 
Part I. 
I *<rf ifrlfmit ^ww <rto r$ dyyAy #« orparittJ oflpa- 
irfov. 2. *a£ Rivera 04p(ks M ir&vras. $ koX iyivero iv m 

o&k i<m Kpvwrdv, 6 oi frpepbr yerfrertu. 6. ^ovcre ft Hpufcjf 
6 rerpdfm* ** y^fum wdvra. 7- o$ros iye^On, ds Kt&tep 
Was. 8. ri rb <mp&09 Bnxv piKKy ravra s yLvwBaC, %, y^~ 
Ofru rb 0£\w& «ou. 10. mi d^crreto afcrote wp6ff<r*w . rn> 
Bam\elar rod Qeov. 1 1. <W* &n* *4™V «*£*€«*, fe Xa0«* 
to6p*TQt ifiaXeP ds Kfrrv eauroO. 12. rot. d 77 Ao t s airov ,frre- 
X«r<u irepl aov. 13. 06 0eXo^ roOro^ 0*HXev<r« # ^ 
14 6 ets <S0e<\6 drjv&pm wevrmbcna, b ft frepw Trevr^ovra. 1$. 

vbaov 60e/X«* ^ ^ ^ v J l6 ' ^ ^^ *** °* ^ ?, ' 
17. Ac ro0 <rr6/*«r6 S <rou *pirfi <re. 18. «ri i4*W» fr«™" 

a^TWJ' wcrel X%os ra ^imtq. 5 Taura. 

Part II. 

I tpaiveade 6 &t $wnyf*s v ** k&*W' 2 - ** °^ °** ifl€V€Vi 
dXX' <b rots Aa>#a<ru>. 3. If"™ 5 * Mc ^^ ^ ***"* * S ^ 
r«ft. 4. pfoov H*V V^' *™ *7** *™ip* v 4arL > mi Ki ^T 
L 4 ^ipa. S- «*l **/**&"« a*rfe «6« rou dpnMJrot «*<*- 

K ai xap^o^t. 8. ft4»" » * Kv ^ ^^ 9 * d ** ^ 
alpo.T6s (rou rb I^lovkoX rbv X irG>v* rf «*M<np. ia /ca t #^ 
r6 irepunreiW avrots Kka^irm kS^pol UdeKa. II. Mf«* ? » 
01k ^ecpaj. 12. /cal ffyeipe ^pas 8 (ramjpteJ ^^- 13; ^°<N- 
TUf M^ S ^pft| ^ to*. 14. P«ri\«ra» .6rov *yep^era* ^ 
r^Kpl^c ^r& rcS, Mpflr 1* y*&* ra^ff *al /cara,p t ,« au- 

7^. IS- #^^ ^' M* *■ P^ 1 * T0 ° eeo9 ' l6 * ** Sl *"* 
rd 4Xas fiapavOy, iv rlvi* dprvd^erai, ; 

«*,// T¥i- wis * Our idiom is ' It came to pass 
1 * It came to pass . . . and tic was. vmimm n e ujix* 

that He was.' » ' It became unto ' for « It became. » Subj. of ^AXn. 

t e \Z Ztrt. * Infin., expressing purpose. « Sub,, of .tap***. 
bee § 40, ruw 1 o. . ? Aof , that whlA re . 

J£? ' Ac"S. " ^nwhat r«pect»' or. ■■ I. ^ —T 



§ $71 



PURE VERBS: CONTRACTED 



75 



Render into Greek :— 
I. Whatsoever * a man soweth, this shall he also reap. 2. 
He that soweth 2 and he that reapeth 2 shall rejoice. 3. Herod 
willeth to kill 3 Thee. 4. Let it be (become) to thee as thou 
wiliest. 5. May it be (become 4 ) unto me according to thy 
word. 6 He 5 (that is) least shall become great. 7. Judge ye 
not and ye shall not 6 be judged. 8. I will judge thee out of 
thine (own) mouth. 9. In what (thing) thou judgest another, 7 
thou hast judged thyself. 10. What (is) the sign when 8 these 
(things) are about to be? 11. From him that hath not 2 shall 
be taken away even that which he hath. 12. Take 9 ye My 
yoke upon you, and learn ye 9 of 10 Me. 

1 *0 !«>, with subj. s Participle with Art. » Aorist. 4 Opt. 

Aor. 5 Article. 6 Double negative. See Vocabulary, Subj. Aor. 
7 Say * the other.' 8 orav, with subj. s * Aorist. 10 «iro. 



57. Pure Verbal Stems. Contracted. 

(a) Verbs with the stem-terminations a, c, are subject to 
Contraction in the Present and Imperfect Tenses (the termi- 
nations beginning with vowels). The scheme of contraction is 
as follows :— - 



Initial letter 
of termination. 


Stem a- 


Stem €- 


Stem 0- 


«€ 


a 


€1 


ov 


-O 


» 


OV 


OV 


-G» 


m 


G> 


m 


-it. 


¥ 


£l 


0% 


-XI 
-ot> 


a 




©i 


-m 


<$ 


01 


Oi. 



76 



VERBS ffl O; CONTRACTED 



[§57 



{b) This Table exhibits the simple laws of contraction ; and 
the following paradigms of the Present and Imperfect, com- 
pared with the Scheme of Terminations, § 43, will present no 
difficulty. 

The alternative terminations In Opt. Act. should be noticed. 

1. A-steinij Ttfi&w, I honour* 

2. E-stem, <j>iX4a) } I love. 

3. O-stem, dfjX6bt } I manifest 

Stem, Ttjia- §l\(.- 8tj\@* 



ActiYe, 





Indicative— Prese 


■nt. 


rmw 


0t\<5 


5^X5 


-it 


-CIS 


-otsr 


Ǥ 






•Wfl€P 


•OVfl€P 


-oO^CF 


*are 


-€?T€ 


-00T6 


**&ai(p) 


•ov<n (p) 

Imperfect* 


-ov<ri(i') 


irtfJL&p 


4$L\ovp 


^Xow 


-as 


-€W 


•out 


*>m 


-6t 


-01; 


^Wfl€P 


•OVfJL€P 


•^oOjtAev 


-Ere 


' -eir6 


-00Tf 


*wp 


Imperative. 


•0W 


rt/ia 


0&61 


SifXw 


. -dr» 


-e/roi 


-oi/t§£ 


*£r€ 


*€?re 


-oOre 


~&Tm&ap 


*dT($<rap 


-otfrMra? 



See 
Notes 



§57] CONTRACTED VERBS; PARADIGMS, 77 

Subjunctive. 
nfidw like Indicative : for others,, see Table, p. 75. 

Optative. 



Notes 



TifiipfM or -i$rjv 
-(ps or -ciijs 

-<£ Or -(£?} 

-ipfiev or -^W ev 
-Qre or -^re 



Tt/l^P 



<pikot[iL or -ofyj' 
-ois or -olrjs 
-01 or -oli? 
-o%,€i> or -oiqpLev 
-oit€ or «0^T€ 
-Qiev 

Infinitive, 



SyXotfAi or -ol-qv l 
-o?s or -oh?s 
-0! or -of^ 
-otftej' or -oiti^ev 
-oire or -dl^re 



drfkovv 



Participle. 

riimv^ -iSo-a, -£b $iAwi>, -oOcra, -00?' S^Xw*', -oOcra, -GUI' 





Middle and Passive. 




Indicative— Present 


u 


SjCMU 


-f or -e? 


Brfkovfim 


areu 
tbfie&a 

m0e 


-otfjct€0a 


-ourat 


Qvrat 


-ovrrat 
Imperfect. 


-OVFTCU 


fjub/Mjp 


^iXotfjMJP 


48rjko6firiir 


^Q 






-aro 
•Qvro 


-€?T0 


-owle 

-00Ff# 



1 The latter are the more usual terminations. 
* According to some grammarians, rtp,*v. 



78 



VERBS IN O: CONTRACTED 



CI 57 







Imperative* 






ri^cS 


^iXot? 


SifXot/ 




-d<r0w 


-€i^#&2 


-oi;^#c# 




-acrde 


**€l&06 


-omffe 




-dad&crmp 


~ei<r0mo°av 


■■ -oti<r0to<rap 




Of -d<r$mv 


or ™€l&0ww 


or -oi(r0mv 


See 








EX(/ 

Notes 




Subjunctive, 





TlfiipfATJP 

~4fi€0m 



Ti/i&<r0ai 



Like the Indicative, 

Optative* 

^ikolfllfJP 
-OlO 

»otro 
^otfjxda 

-Ot&0€ 

Infinitive, 

0tX6?<r0at 



See 
EW 

Notes 



SfjkoifiTjW 

-oto 

-otro 

-otfieda 

-01^0 € 
-OWTO 



dij\ov<r$ai 



Participle* 
TifJU&ftevoSi ~% -of ; 0tXotf/££PO?, ^ -of ; Si]Xo$fiewQ$ $ -i;, -w 
'(*) The OtheF tenses of these Verbs are regularly formed, 
the stem-vowel being generally lengthened before the Future, 
Aorist, and Perfect tense-endings, Exceptions will be noted in 
the Vocabularies, In some Passives^ the Aorist, Future, and 
Perfect insert -<r after the stem-vowel. 



Tenses 

Pres, Act, 
Fut Act. 
Petf. Act. 
I Aor. Pass* 
Perf. Pass* 



Of TljJLdo$} 



TifJLQ) 

rertfAijica 
Tert/Mj/Jiai 



of diffkow— 
. : 8rfkQ 



of 0tX£a>, of reX&r, 

(pthu> reAw 

<piKif}or(d Te\4<r<a 

iT€(ptk7]Ka, rerikrjKa 

i<pLk^7]v iTekicrdrjv idfjXdOyjv 

Tre<filkr}nai rer^Xetr/iat dedtfKwfJMi 

(d) Pure contracted Verbs do not take a Second Aorist f or 
other Second Teases. 



§§g] CONTRACTED VEKBS: EXERCISE 



79 



{<?) Three verbs of this class 'strengthen* the stem by p. 
Stem pa- fialvw, I go, only in N.T. in compounds. Fut. 
jjfaofiai, Perf. jW/fy/ca, 2 Aor. efirjv (see § 64 <r). Stem IXa-, 
ikativw, drive ; Perf. 4\if)\aKa. Stem <(>0a- (p&iv(a s I come before, 
arrive ; I Aor. %<pdwa ; Perf. £(p$aKa. 

58. Exercise XIII. 

Vocabulary. 

Jf'Wi' *# -dca ^Sw^ ^<z Future in -irjo-ca unless otherwise marked. 



Verbs. 

(3odw, frry #/<w^ 
■ycXdo), -w, -dew, laugh 
Mw, Mo-ca, impf. eiW, permit 
i|MrX^0«, I aor. iviT^aa,, Jill 

up, satisfy 
"ivavdycty /«/ 0«^ (to sea) 
ItrcpWTdea, -w, /<? question 
4iriTiji.d», -w, to rebuke, w. dat. 
*liripX4ircd, /<?<?/£ a^?2, w. «M, 

aCC* 

ipoirdc*, $Jvl f beseech 

:: *4rot|idt<», prepare 

{dm, *&,■ fut £ij<r« or frfjo-ofjMi f 

■inf. f f F f //w 
yppAt, fat* Ida-ofia^ l aor* 

imdfii?}¥ $ heal 
Kai^do|uuy-u7/Mit 9 £<?arf 
'lnrdopAi 9 ~Qp>ai f fut, KT^<rofiaL 9 

to gain $ acquire 
*\m$mm f to worship 
p,vao}xat ? ~wfJLm 9 i aor, 

ifjt*pifj&dy)p f remember 
irnvdca, -w, -dcrc^ & hunger 
trXavd% -&,.' I aor, pass. 

iw\mv^.07iw 9 had astray 



<rwavTdtt f -«, »»«/,■ m dat. 
T€-XeuTdo» 9 *w $ finish; i*e. life ; 

roXp,da>, *c3, dan 
^pXdm P -w, -&(rw $ loosen^ let 
down f as nets 

^opTdf ojmt^ to be satisfied 

Nouns and Adjectives* 

%pa ? -as, 7) (hunting) draught 
(of fish) 

4tcd0©tpT0$ t -of, unclean $ im- 
pure 

* lavas, -a, o, Jonas $ Jonah 

F€icpoS| -c£ f -6v, dead 

ircpLTOjufji ' fc 7? s » % circumcision 

iroio$, ~& 9 -op, of what kind 

crap!* <rapK6s t rj^ flesh 

faroiioWj, -^s, % endurance 

<|>a>vVj, -7}$, % voice 

Adverbs^ etc* 

|iij, with subjunctive ('that 
not % &j/ 

vvv ? ^^w 

oMyoVp a little way 
ovai} Woe I inter]* 
ovt€4Ti f no longer 



80 VERBS IN 11: CONTRACTED C§ 5^ 

Rules. 

Cases, i. After verbs of remembering the Genitive 

expresses that which is remembered. See 15. 

2. The Dative is often used to express the object of a mental 
affection, as worship. See 17. 

3. Two Accusatives follow verbs of asking— the ' nearer 
and the 'remoter' Object, i.e. the person asked and the thing 
asked for. See 9. 

Tenses. 4. In the Imperative mood, the Present ex- 
presses a command generally, or implies continuance or repeti- 
tion : the Aorist implies that the action is instantaneous or 
complete. Compare 1 with 5, and 11 with 16. 

Impersonal Verbs. These are used only in the Third 
Person Singular, and are rendered into English with the pro- 
noun it See Handbook, § 171. 

Translate: — 

I. rifm rbv waTipa <rov ml rty /JLyripa <rov. 2. fiaK&pioi ol 1 
weivcavTes vvv % 8n x°P Ta(T ^'h <Tm ^ € ' ftaicdpioi ol Khalovres vvv, 8n 
yeh&o-ere. 3. ireLvQvras 4v£t\t}q-€v ayaOwv.* 4. imTlpLrjcre 8k 6 
'Irjarovs r§ irvetipLan rtp drnddprq}, nal Idaaro rbv wcuSa. 5. 
XaAdowe rh 8Urva bfjL&v els 3 &ypav. 6. otial {f/xip, ol ifiire- 
irXqcrfAivoif 6Vt ireivdvere. 7. owe i-rr' &pT(p p.bvtp ^aerm b &v9pwwos» 

8. deos 8k ovk gem, venpGiv dXXd t&vruv. trdvres yhp atrip £Qo~ip t 

9. oftc&t 8k 4T6\fL(ai> iwepurav afoov oiiSiv. 10. iiptirqaev a&rot 
dirb ri)$ yyjs iwavayayelv ohiyov. II. <piav^ §oQvto% 4p rfi 'ipfiwp, 
'Erot/idcraTe r^v b8ov Kvpiov. 5 12. 4v ry tiTrofiovy fyuv KTfaearde 6 
rds fvxte itli&P: t$* #eXXe 7 rekevrav. 14. o-vpfyrrjo-ep atfr$ 
Sxkos iro\ti$. 15. ical ifAvf}crd7}<rav rQv p-qfidrcav adroO. 16. 
pXtirere 8 p% T\avr)6TJTe. 17. ^pcts ydp fofiev' % itepiTopfa ol 
wvetfiaTi, Qecp Xarpetovres, Kal mvx&jAevoi 4v Xpurry 'lyo-ov, ml 
ovk 4p crapKl TreTroidores. 

1 'Ye who.' 2 See § 53, rule 1. 8 * For,' i.e. with a view t&. 
* Translate as Vocative. 5 Without article ; equivalent to Heb. Jeho- 
vah. 6 « Ye shall win.' 7 * She «as , about.' 8 ' Take hee<J,' lit. 
f look (to it). 



59l 



VERBS IN Efl: EXERCISE 



81 



Render into Greek : — 

I. He that honours l not 2 the Son, honours not the Father. 
2. Honour 3 (ye) all (men). 3. Honour 4 (ye) the king. 4. 
Teacher, rebuke 3 Thy disciples. 5. Because I live, ye shall 
live also. 6. He that loveth * Me shall be loved by 5 My 
Father. 7. Simon (sou) of Jonas, lovest (thou) Me ? 8. If ye 
love those who love you, what kind of favour have you ? 6 9. 
Thou shalt love the Lord 7 thy God, 10. Jesus, looking upon 
the young man, loved him. 11. A man from 8 the multitude 
cried out, saying, Teacher, look upon 3 my son. 12. He that 
glorieth, 1 let him glory in the Lord. 

1 Participial construction. * *«?• 8 1 Aorist. * Present. 6 vit 6, 
6 Dative with e<m, see § 40. 1 b. 7 Jehovah. 8 aw6. 



59. Exercise XIV. Pure Verbal Stems in c 

Vocabulary. 
Verbs in Am form the Future in -^cr© unless otherwise marked. 



Verbs. 

axcupe'op,ai, -odftau, lack oppor- 
tunity 

*&ya0dXXco, 2 aor. dvidaXov, 
flourish or thrive again 

&ptc£op,cu, "i&ofiai, be satisfied 
with 

*M,pXP\ka\. s begin 

M, Impers., imperf. Met, it is 
needful^ one ought 

Siaicov&d, -w, serve 

*Siacr€fa, treat with violence 

Sokcco, -w, fut. d6^w, appear, 
think : as impers. done?, it 
seems good to (dat.) 

limXlw, -w, -4(S(a t to complete 

IXeeo), -«, have compassion on 

famvlw, -«, ~i<j® % commend, 
fmis§ 



evkoyiot, -w (speak well of), 

bless, invoke blessing on 
*€v<f>pa£vop.ou, be glad 
ebySkfiwri®) -w, thank, give 

thanks 
Otwpeto, ~Q, behold, gaze upon 
* icrxvft), &? #3/<g &? (inf. ) 
KaX4a>, -£», -&r«, perf. /c^/cX^a, 

call f summon, invite 
*Ka7apdo{JicH, -Qftai, invoke a 

curse upon 
*kX&&», -dew, break (bread) 
KXr|povo|X€w, -w, inherit, obtain 
KooTjic'co, -(a, furnish, adorn 
Kpar&>, -«, lay hold of {gen.) 
Xakm, -w, speak 
{jlctcivoIw, -w, repent 
irapaicaXca), «£, ^<r&>, exhort, 

comfort 

F 



82 



VERBS IN O; ' CONTRACTED 



[§ .59 



See 

Ixl 

Notes 



See 
Notes 



irapaKoXov04e>, -&, follow closely 

mpuraria, -©, au/£ 

iroilca, -«, *fc, «^, practise 

*irpoarlx««> £*w te/| with 
dr6, beware 

•rrpoiTKvvl©, -w, bow down, wor- 
ship 

■srreojxcu, -oO/iaj, be alarmed 

itg>X£«, -w, j*//' 
crvKo«j>avrlco, -w, accuse falsely 

(as an informer) 
*crw€XojAO,i, ^ straitened or 

restrained 
T€X!<a,-<3,-&u«>, fulfil, accomplish 
4»tXew, -a?, A? /##£ 
<f)oSlop,aL, -oO/xat, &? J^r 
<J>pov€W, -a>, *ffe£, be minded 

Nouns and Adjectives, 

&y&iri] } -17?, *^, /<w* 

-ayopa,"-as, ^, market place 
&8ikqs, -op, unjust 
alwvioSj -tor, eternal 

&vdjnvT}cri,s, -ews, ^, remem- 
brance, memorial 

&criracr|j.ds, -o0 9 6, salutation, 
greeting 



do-o-dptov, -fov, r6, * farthing * 
pdwTKTjia, -etros, r6, baptism 

YpajAfiaTCvs, -<:«$> 0, jmA? 
%ti4>ofSos, -ov, terrified, afraid 
lirurTdrqs, voe. 'Eirtcrrdra, 

Master I 
ExbSta, -as, ^, Euodia 
idXcwrcra, -^r, ^, w« 
oiicov<5pos, -ou, 6, steward 
o^cavia, -«i', rd, rations, as of 

soldiers 
Saravas, -a, 6, Heb. * Adver- 
sary,' &*&*» 
cnroX^, -??s, ^, n>fo 
crrpovOCov, -tou, t6, £#za// $m/, 

sparrow 
eruvcry©^, -^s> 7/, synagogue 
I>WTvxq, -i}$, ij, Syntyche 
C^iorros, -??, -oy, highest ; 6 

Adverbs, etc, 

aKpipfis, accurately 
&vo}®ev,from above 
%m 6tov (compound phrase), 

&u.o(4>s, likewise 
<j>povCp.<«)s, prudently 



See 

E\</ 

Notes 



See 

EW 

Notes 



Rules. 

(0) Cases. I. Passive verbs of calling, like Substantive 
Verbs, §17 (2), require Urn Nominative after as well as before 

them. See i. 1. 

2. The Genitive or Possessive, is often used to denote attri- 
#&& or quality. See Exercise, part ii. 3. 



|59l VERBS IN Wl i EXERCISE 83 

3. Verbs of taking hold mid, the like are followed by a parti- 
tive Genitive'. Eng. by. See Exercise, part ii. 5. 

4. Price is expressed by' the Genitive : to be rendered in 

'English with the preposition for. See L 8. 

5. A * cognate Accusative ' often follows a verb with which 

See it is connected in meaning. See i, 10, See 

^ (b) Moods, 6. The Subjunetive AoFist frequently has ^ 
— > the force of an Imperative, and is used especially in ppohi- «— •* 

bitions. 

7. . The Subjunetive Aorist with conditional . particles 
^r-> often has the force of a Future Perfect. See ii. 4. . «r- 

l\i ' ( c i T©nS6S# 3* The Aorist indicative denotes a completed ^ 
Notes action ) in distinction from the Imperfect, See i. 2 ; ii. 15, etc. Notes 

9, An Aorist Participle in apposition with the 

Subject of the Verb often denotes an immediately 

preceding action. ' This use of the Aor* Part, is one of the 
most common idioms in the N.T., and may be represented by 
■two verbs ;■ the action of the one— the Participle—preceding that 
of the other r iffandbook f § 394^ 3^). See i, 4, 12 ; ii 5, etc* 
For this idiom, see further, Notes on Syntax^ § 79. 3, 



Translate s— 

Part I. 

■ 1. 00ros iurm fiiyas 9 ml vibs *T\pt<TTOV icX^ifdrereM. 2* 4k&\ovp 
.ttidrb 4wl.,r§ dvofian rod wmrpbs ai3ro0, 3* alnves Hvqicbvovv a$rot$ 
■£k twp vwapx^TWW avrals* 4. Kai>\af$&v- &prov e$%apicrr?fcFas 
[Mfckacrep* 5* tovto womre els rtyt 4fi^v. &p&fJLV7}<riv* 6* rt 8k fie 
■/■toXctre, Kt/pte, Kijpie^ ml ov womre i \iyw ; 7* 8iMo*Kake ayadi P 
>£ TOf/jcas fo>V aX&viov icX^powofirjam ; 8, ofycl ^ivre <Trpov0ia 
ittdkovprtu Accraptusp Mo ; 9, 'I^croO f MwLwrdra $ i\in]<FOP fyfias* 
XQ.. Kdl'i<f>o^d7i(rap ^6jSof pt,4yap* II, fity ^o^oO t fibvov wicrrevaop* 

12. ml atirol wpoaKW^aavres myrow iwiarpetpap eh K l€pov<ra\^fi. 

13. wro7]dipT£$ 8^ ml fyc0o/3oi yevdfJLSPoi 486kqvp wwwjua dewpelp* 

14. tovto to ■ yey pa fifiivop del reXecr^vat 4p ifioL 1 5* c^fJLepop iw 
t$otK(p- ran 8m'fi€ peimi* 16, €v<ppap07}pai 8k ml % a PW^ £5e4. 



84 VERBS IN a : CONTRACTED [§ 59 

Part II. 

I. Trpotrix^rs awb rQp ypafifiaTewv twp 6e\6vrmv urepiwaretv iv See 
crroXcus ml <pi\oijvTWv dawaafiovs iv rats dyopah. 2. fiqdiva K , Y 1 
-g^ faaaelcnfre juijdk (FVKO(fiavT r i}ffr}re 1 Kal dpiceitrde rots dxpwlois bfiQp* 1 < — 
Exl 3, iwyvecrep 6 tctiptos 2 top oiKovhpiov tt]S ddmlas, Brc (ppoplp,ws 
Notes gTroiycrep. 4, p&wrio-fia 8k %x® pairTurdTJvai, ml ttQs (rvvexofiai See 
eW Brov reXea-Ofj I 5. avrb$ 8 k Kpam/jcras tt}$ %eipbs avTTJs 4<p&- ^ 
-r-» VTjcrev Xiyup, "H waW, iyetpe. 6. %8o%e Kdfiol, irapr)KoXovd7}K6n < — 
Ext &vb)dev Trdaip d/cpt/Scus, leaders croi ypd\pai. 7. Kal iXdXei etikoyw 
Notes rbv Qe6v. 8. Kal irdpres ol aKodaavres idatifiaeav irepl tup 
XaXrfdhrmv dirb tQp woifiivrnv. 9, odros 6 HvOptawos ijp^aro 
olKodofietp Kal o$k tcrxvaep iKTeXecrai, 10. yiverai %apd ipibiriov 
tup dyyiXap rod Qeov iirl ipl d/napriaXq} jueravoovPTi. II. evXo- 
yefre rods Karapwfxipov^ vfxds. 12. XWois KaXois Kal dpad^ixacnp 
K€K6a-fiV}raL. 13. Biodiap wapaKaXca Kal HiVpt^xW irapaKaXui rb Zee 
afrrb (ppopeip 4p Kvpicp. 14. dpeddXere to* virkp ipiov (ppopetp; i$ Ex ^ 
-g-> $ Kal itppopetre, ^KaipeiaBe 84, 15. r^v <rvpay(oyr}P afrrbs 5 ipKodo- <— 
Ixl M*ev ijpAP. 

Notes 1 Observe the distinction between the tenses in this sentence. 8 The 
'master* of the servant. 3 Nom. with Article for Vocative, * Art. 
agreeing with Inf. as a Noun. 5 Emphatic .* ' at his own expense.* 

Render into Greek : — 

1. Teacher, what shall we do ? 2. As ye will that men do to 
you, do ye also to them. 3. Go and do thou likewise. 4. I 
say to my servant, Do * this, and he doeth (it). 5. Simon (son) 
of Jonas, lovest 2 thou Me ? 6. The Father Himself loves you 
because ye have loved me. 7. He that loveth father or mother 
above 3 Me is not worthy of Me. 8. Blessing I will bless thee. 
9. All things that were written by the prophets shall be accom- 
plished. 10. It is necessary that 4 what is written be accom- 
plished in me. 11. It is 6 finished. 12. These "words spake 
Jesus. 13. Thus it is written, and thus it behoved the Christ to 
suffer. 6 14. What must I do f that I may be saved 8 ? 15. Re- 
pent 1 (ye) and turn (to God). 

1 1 Aorist. 2 $iAe'fc>, compare sentence 7, p. 81. 3 virep with Ace. 
4 Sign of Ace. with Inf. § 51, 1. 5 See § 49. 4, * 9 Aor, ? Say, What 
behoveth me to do (1 Aor.), 8 * Aor. Subj, 



§-6q) VERBS /AT Oft: EXERCISE 8j 

60. Exercise XV. Pure Verbal Stems in ©. 

Vocabulary. 



Verbs. 

*a${dw>, Impf. -q^avovs fat. 

a^lijcw, increase 
Sucaila, -w, justify 
Kparcuow, .£, /««&? strong; 

pass, <5<? strong 
OJJUHO&J, -w, /&«* 
*traTlc*, -<S, tread down 



wXt|poca, -&, fulfil, fill 

o-Tavpoca, -w, crucify 
Tatrsivi®, -w, & humble 

Adverb and Preposition, 

&XP 1 or ^XP IS > adv., ##/*7 
■Sir 6 (gen.), #y (the agent) 



Rule* 

The AOPist (d-o/Marfo, indefinite) frequently appears to de- 
scribe that which, having taken place in the past, may at any 
time take place again. Hence, losing specific reference to 
time, it declares a general fact OP law. See 4, where 
R.V. accepts the rendering is justified, although allowing was 
justified in the margin as admissible. See Notes on Syntax, 
§ 77. 3, and compare Handbook, § 364, d, e. 

Translate :~— 

I. iicel i/rraijpitMrav a{rr6v. 2. rb 8£ ircudtov qiji-avev, ml ii<pa~ 
raiQVTQ irifeijfiaTi, Tfkqpo{ifi€vov <ro<pig,, 3. irds 6 v\pQi> iavrov 
Taireiv(o$'fj<reTa,i i b 5£ raweivQp iavr&p vxl/tedrj&erai. 4. 48iKai&0r} l 
if (Totpla dwb w&vtuip tu>v riKvwv avTijs. 5. rive 2 dfKHiixroo ti\v 
fiaaikeiap rod Qeov; 6. (rrifxepov TrewX^pwrai r) ypatpTj avrrj iv 
Tots (balp -bfiSiv. 7. 'lepova-aX^fj. Icrrai irarovpiivT] tiwh idvwv, &XP 1 
irXfipwOScrs, Koupol idvwv. 8. vp,m 4(rTe ol daccuovPTes iavrods 3 
ivibwiov tQv &Pdpd)W(av» 

1 See rule aboye, s Neuter. 3 See § 34, p. 37. 

Render into Greek :— - 

1. They cried, Crucify, 1 Crucify * Him ! 2. We preach Christ 
(who hath been) crucified. 3. A man shall not be justified by * 
works of law. 4. Whom He called, 8 these He also justified, J 
and whom He justified, these He also glorified. 8 5, The Scrip- 



86 VERBS m il [|6o 

ture was fulfilled. 6. It. was needful that the Scripture should 
be fulfilled. 4 7. These things came to pass that 5 the word of 
the prophets might be fulfilled. 8. They were filled 6 with joy 
and (the) Holy Spirit. 

1 1 Aor. 2 ef. 8 Comp. Gk. 4 and Rule. * 1 Aor. Inf. 5 Iva with 
Opt., Aor. 6 Impf, 

61. Verbs in -<tk». 

These are 'strengthened' forms, mostly from pure stems. 
The characteristic -cn< belongs only |o the Present and Im- 
perfect ; the remaining tenses being formed from the stem. 

Some of these verbs reduplicate the stem-syllable. 

Thus from yvo- yt,yv&criaa t more generally ywib<nc(a ; from p.va- 

Vocabulary. 

dp do- k co (dp€-)j fut. d.piffbjf I aor. ^p€<xa } please (dat.) 
yvyvf&crica), generally yiv&crm (*yvo-), fut. yvibcroficu, 1 aor, iyvdxra f 

2 aor. £yvw $ learn, know, perf. iyvma, I know 
&v®.yhvwtrK®, read 
eirj/ywao-Kca, know fully 
cSpCcrKca (€^p€-), fut. eip^aw, 2 aor. edpop,J£nd 
iXd<nc®]xai., I aor. IXdo-dfjv, be propitious or merciful to (dat.) 
Jjimv^a-Kojjuu (fi-va-) 1 aor. i^vf}d$7}v i perf. pifjwiifjuu, remember 
irtirpturictt (irptt-), perf. wewpdica, I aor. pass, ifrpddrjv^ perf. 

pass, wiwpafiai, sell 
SCSouTKtt, teach, has been already explained, § 50^. 
Jv^grjcca, a&V, forms the perfect as from 0y»-, riOvriKa^ and (by 
transposition) the 2 aor. as from §av- %davov, only in com- 
position, &irodi>Tfi<?m i I die; dwidapov, I died. 

62. Exercise XVI. 

Translate :— 

I. ml ykfi 5 Xpurrfo ©$% iavrf ifpevep. 2. otk iylvufficov r4 
\ey6fiem, 3.' iyv&icafiev 5n m) d 6 "Xpurrds. 4. oi»c^f KpinrHv 
i€Ti 5 oi5 yvw<j6-qaeTai, $, rd irmich v/jlQv yvwcrdiyria wmiP 
Avdpdiirois* 6. *al ijj,v^ff0r}<rav twv ^fidftap adrou, J.tHjtip 
&vBpttiwos 8n fUfjLP-^ffK'g d/rovi 8. wetrpaKe fdfro $<ra €l%€# 



§63] 



VERBS IN Ml 87 



Render into Greek : — 

1. I know 1 you, that ye have not the love of God in yon. 
2. Ye shall know the truth. 3. Seek ye, and ye shall find. 
4. Jesus was found alone. 5. He found favour with 2 God. 
4 We have found the Christ. 7. Peter remembered the word 
of Jesus. 8. Lord, remember 8 me. 9. Lord, be merciful to 
me. 

1 Properly ■ytmo-Kto means 'I team'; thePerf. * I have learned ' tkere* 
fore often means simply / know. s irapa, dat. 8 1 Aorist. 

63. Second Conjugation. Verbs in -|w. Class I. 

The principal forms of the Substantive Verb €l|i.t have 
been already given, §§ 14, 47 h. The whole verb is conjugated 
as follows. The stem kv~ is softened in the 1 pers. Pres. to cl-, 
and the 2 pers. has el for 4<r<rl. Several tenses are wanting. 

Indicative. 

Pres. dp.1 & ierrify) icr/th iarri dcri(p) 

Imper. fy or 1\im\v %% or fada ty fjfiw or 1}pe6a fjre %<rav 

Fut. iffopMi, icrg or- 64 .foTcu ivbfieda $<re<T0e $<tovt(u 

Imperative. 
Pres. Mk %gtw or ffTia lore gvrwcray 

Subjunctive. 
Pres. w §s '§ &^ev %re $><n(y) 

Optative. 

Infinitive. 
Pres, efrat- ' Fut. &re<r0a* 

Pres, &p ofiora 6v Fut. iffifiema -?? -op 

$yrw o6<nfi 6vro$ ov -i?f -ov 

etc etc. 



$8 VERBS IN Ml ft 63 

Not unlike the substantive verb in conjugation, and therefore 
to be carefully distinguished from it, is the verb etfii (stem t-), 
go; not found in the New Testament, except in composition, as 
dirafu, I go away ; efoeifju, I go in j fljeifii, I go out* It will suf- 
fice to give a few forms of eTjeu, to show the differences between 
it and the substantive verb. 

Indicative. 



Pres. etfu et elan tp,ev tre 
Imp. yew #«s $« yufiev ifeire 


ta<n(v) 
fieo-ap 


Infinitive. 




Pres. thai 




Participle. 




Pres. lihv lov<ra 16p 





See 

Notes 
j. Participle. 

See 

The Terminations of the Second Conjugation, partly 
illustrated above, spring from an ancient form of the language, 
and differ from those of the First Conjugation in the Present, 

Imperfect, and 2 Aopist. 

In this class of Verbs, most have pure Stems. In the 1st 
pers. sing. Present the stem-VOWel is lengthened, as from 
^a- t <p7)fit, I say ; and the stem is often reduplicated, as from 
S 66 So-, dl*d<a[u, I give ; from Be- -rl^/cu, / put Stems beginning 
^ with a vowel or double letter reduplicate with t. Thus, from 
■ — > crTtt- t-ffTTj/JLL, I cause to stand % from 4- if- thai, I send, found in <p — • 
N. T. only in compounds ; the most important being with d-rrd. ^ 
d(plr){xi } I let go y forgive. Notes 



64. These verbs are thus conjugated. 



Pres. 



Notes 



Stems :■ I, irra-, 


Indicative-. 


3< «-• 


4®* So* 


I* l« ttrrrjfiL 


»i}$ -7]{ri(p) 


-afiew 


-are *d<rt(p) 


t* ri6if]fjti 


-97s -7]<tl(p)' 


-€fl€V 


-€T€ *€CL<ri{p) 


3# d^i^fii 


*t}$ -ii<n(v) 


*>€fl€P 


-ere -acn,(v) 


4.- Mdmm 


»m *mi(p) 


"QfiiF 


-ore •ba<n{v) 



Notes 



m 



PARADIGMS 



fif) 



See 
Notes 



Impetf, I. tffrrjv 
2 irl&riv 
3. * ^$«>p 
4, idldav 

2 Aor. 1. &rn?i> 
2. £0ip» 

4. 



-7j$ ^ or *e$ 
~&is «ca or -ov 



»Qfi6P 

™7)fiL€P 
»7}fJl€P 



-€T€ -COW OF OW 
~0T€ -ocrcy? 

-ore -ocrap 



Notes 



Imperative* 
Present I* ttrnj -circa 

4* 5l5ov -dr« 



a Aorist 1. &T7j0i or <ft& 
4* Wj 



-€TCt? 

~6tw 



-are 
-ere 

-ore 

-^re 

-ere 
-ere 
•Art ' 



-irm&ap 

-irwaap 

-irm(rap 
*>6r^a*ap 



Subjunctive, 



Present 1. IcftiS 
2, ndw 

4* 5t5c3 



-if* 



-1? 

-2? 



-<3fJL€P 

-Qfl€P 



-cTre 



-etxri(i') 
-w<n(p) 
-&<ri(p) 



2 Aor* //£* Present without reduplication : ^tw^ $Q\ d^c3, 5w. 



Optative* 



Present 1. Urralrir 
2. Tideh]P 
3* dtptetyp 

4.- didohp 









-rjfiep 
-rilJLGP 

-V}fJL€P 

-Tj/Aep 



-7fT€ 

-fire 






2 Aor. Z£fe Present without reduplication : ' ^rat^w f #e% F f 
&^€irjp f §i%F or 5^%f* 



1 Irregular*., as 1 conj M the preposition augmented, 



90 



VERBS IN Ml 



[§6 4 



Present I. 1<tt&vcu 
2 Aorist 2. ffrijvai 



Infinitive. 

2. Tidhcu 
2. OeiPtu 



3, a(puvai 

3. d0€tiP(U 



Pres. I. lords 
2. rt#ds 



4, di&Wi 
4. Soupat 



Participles. 

-a<ra -a? Gen. Ecra^ros -a^f -a^ros, etc. 

-ewra -e? -ivros -elaris -ivros 

-£vto$ -el<T7}$ -hrof 

-6pto$ -oticn}$ -6vto$ 

2 Aor. like Present without reduplication : eras, 6d$, A^els, 
dote. 



3. d<pLcls -et&a -ev 

4. Bi8o6s -ovcra -6v 



Middle and Passive. 

The Verbs in these voices are conjugated as follows : The e- 
stem is selected as an example; but verbs in a or are conju- 
gated in the same way, inserting those respective vowels ; thus 
Hdefiai, teTaimi, dldofjiai; TtBeLfirjp, l(rTaifi>7jVydidoipriv f etc. 



Indicative. 

Present ride-pat -ecu -rat 
Imperfect kr&k-mv " ff0 mT0 

Imperative. 
Present rWe-tro or HOov -<rd<a 



•fieOa -<r6e -prat 

-fJL€6a -<r0e ~VTQ 



-ads -aduxrav 



Subjunctive. 
Present riB-w^m -!? -i$t« ''-cfytefla -frOe -«irai 

Optative. 
Present nd-elfM)P -«o -etro -elfteffa -«&r0e .-etrro 



Infinitive. 
Piesent tW-wBm 



JL ARTIC1PLE* 



1 64 4 



PARADIGMS 



91 



Middle only. Second Aorist. 

This Tense follows the Present and Imperfect throughout^ 
without the reduplication. 

Ind. ietmv. Imp. 0i<ro (or 0ov). Subj. 0«jmm. Opt. 
0elfJL7)p. Inf. Oiadat. Part. dSfxevos. 

The remaining tenses are formed after the analogy of the 
First Conjugation, as follows :— 



Active cra- 


0€» 


1~ 




So- 


Future ffr^m 


Btfcrw 


&<pri<r(i> 




dlb<T(0 


1 Aorist lor^era 


§6rjKa 


iL<p7)Ka 




ISw/ca 


Perfect gcrrrjica 


ridewa 


AfpeiKa 




Skfi&Ka 


Passive : 










Future a-rad^ofiaL 


T€0rj(rofMU 


a<pe0rj<ro{i(u 


do0T}crofi(U 


I Aorist £<TTadqv 


iri0t]v 


&<p4d7]V 




4d60r}v 


Perfect e&rafiac 


rideifjiat, 


&(p€t,iJLai 




MdofjLat 


The 3rd pers. plur. Perf, Pass, of tybi/u is 


&(pmPTai instead 


of dtpetvTai. 











Notes 



Notes on the Paradigms. 

{a) The First Aorist Active of three Verbs, riBr\\xi % %«, and 
$ m -dlStaia, and of their compounds, ends in «kci. The First Aorist 
EW of i<rrrjfiL t #cm?<ra> is transitive, / placed; the Second 

" LJ "" Aorist, forqv, intransitive, / stood. 

\b) The Perfect Participle Active of for^u, regularly ifrTijK&s, 
is often contracted into ierds, and is thus declined : -«s -wcra 
-c&S, Gen. -earos -«cn]S -«tos, as if from iataih^ So the Perf. 
Inf. is occasionally i<rrdvai t for iaTTjtcimL, 

(c) Three frequently-occurring Verbs in m form their Second 
Aorist after the model of Verbs in -jm. 

Yiv&ncfo, see § 61, 2 A or. tyvuv, Inf. yvwvai, Part. ypotft. 

8vv», J^/ (as the sun), 2 Aor. £5w. 

paCvcD, go (stem Pa-), 2 Aor. tpyv, Inf. ^"cu. 

This last verb is, in the N. T., only found in compounds, as 
imftalpu, ApifiTjP, Part. <ba|5ds. 



See 
Notes 



See 
Notes 



See 
Notes 



9^ 



PerMs in Mi 



c§ m 



(d) The following Deponent Verbs are conjugated like the 
Middle of verbs in -pi :-— 

Suva-, d&afxai, I am able, l Aor. ifivv^v. 

Imcrra-, iiricrrafiai, I know, feel sure, only in Pres. Ind. 

and Part. 
Kp€fi.a-, KpifMfWA t / hang t l Aor. iKpefmvdyiP 
i- (comp. with Kara), My/iai, I sit; Imper. k&Bov (for 

Kderjtro), Inf. . J«x0ftr0at, Part, tcadr/fievos, 
mi, .Ketfiai, I lie, or ^ &*tf dkaw, Inf. Kuvdaiy Part. 

KeijAevos. 



6& Exercise XVII. Verbs in -in. Class I. 

Vocabulary. 



*&ko\ov66», -&, jW/<ra> 
&vC<rrrjfu, roue ^ 
*lirtXajApdvo|xat, /^ &>/</ ^ 

gen. 
ty£<rn]pi,, 2 aor. iw4(TTr}p i 

stand near s dat. 
*0c&ofuu, -Qpai, dep. I aor. 

ideao-dfi^y, behold 
<tHjkg> (from i<rT7)Ka) t stand 

firmly 
$n]\t,i, impf. |^p ? #y» 

Adverbs and Preposition. 
iirdvco (adv. as prep.) ? above 
jAajcpdSev, ^r off 
irapd (dat., ace), &M& 



Nouns and Adjectives, 
a^ap-rCa, -as, t\, ,$•*# 

rewi)<rap£r, indec. Gennesaret 
■yvwerrds, -^ -6p, known \ ol 

ypwo-Tot, acquaintance 
Aa^iB, indec. David 
BivBpov } -ov, to, tree 
$€fj,€'Xi©$, or -op, -ov, foundation 
©pdvos, -ov, 6, throne 

XCflVl), -^ ^ /^^ 

fxe'eros, -??, -ov, middle \ rb 

li4(iop f the midst 
|WT)ficCov, -e/oy, r<5, Awh£ 
pvcrrffpioy, -ou, r6, mystery 

iropixds, -oy, h, fever 



Rules. 
i. The AFtiele indicates defmiienms in a great variety of 
ways. See Handbook, §^13, and instances there given. In 
the following Exercise, note sentences 15, 17. 



§6sJ EXMRCISEz CLASS I 93 

2. Transitive and Intransitive. Some verbs denoting 

state may mean either causing to be in that state, or coming into 
it, or being in it. The chief illustration is the verb t&Trjfi^ 
stand. The Pres. Act. (transitive) means / cause to standi the 

I Aor, (transitive), / caused to stand; the Perfect (intransitive), 
J have stood \ i.e. / am standing ; and the Pluperfect, / stood ; 
also 2 Aorist, I stood. The Passive again ( s be caused to 
stand ') may be rendered simply stand. See 3» 5» 6, 7? 8, 9, io, 

II for various illustrations. Compare Handbook, § 354. 



Translate s — 

I. Sdxrei afirip Ktipios 6 Qebs rbp dpbvov Aafiid rod irarpbs at/rov 
2. Travrl atrovvH ere 8l8ov. 3, ov Mva^aL avwT&s l Sovval croi, 
4. Hs iarut 5oi/s ffot ttjv i^ovaiav tclijttjp ; 5« £irikaf36fJ.€vo$ 
iroubiov, iffTTjerev avrb 7rap' iavrcp. 6. Kai adrbs fjv icrrks irapb. 
rl]V XijjLvrjv TeypTjaapiT. *]. gyeipai, Kai <jrr\Qi eh rb fiiaov. 8. 
dcrrrjueurap d£ way res oi yvtocrroi aiiT(p fiaKpodev, bpcevres ravra. 
Exl 9* T & s crrad^a-erat ^ fiaaikela atirov j IO. aradels 1 Bk b 'I^troCs 

Notes JKJkevffev avrbv dxd'rivai. II. KaliiricrT&s 1 iirdvo) a^r^s^7r€rI^o'e ^ , 

rep wvpertp, Kai a<priKev airriv. 2 12. a(p£vre$ 1 &TravTa TjKoXoljdTjaap ^, 
atrip. 13. &<p£wvTal orov a! ajULapriai. 14. koX idevro 8 iravres Notes 
ol aKOiJcravTes iv rrj icapdlq, avrwv. 15. %6r)K€ ■ defiiKiov iwi r\\v 
wirpav. 16. idedcravro rb fivrj/xeiov Kai ws iri&y rb aQ/xa clvtov. 
17. ij a^ivrj wpbs r^v pi^av twv devdpwv Keirca. 18. Kijpie, ikv 
ffeXys Mvacral fie Kadapiaat. 19. or^/cere .iv Ku/>% aycnrTjTol. 

1 See § 59, Rule 9. s It left her. s Understand them— these sayings. 



Render into Greek : — « 

I. Ask ye, and it shall be given you. 2. He gave them 
power and authority over all the demons. 3. No man will be 
able to serve two masters. 4. To you it hath been given to 
know the mystery of the Kingdom of God. 5. Thou takest up 
what thou didst not lay down. 6. An angel of the Lord stood 
near them. 7. Who is able to forgive sins, excepting God 



94 VERBS IN Mi [§6 

only ? 8. He permitted 1 not the demons to speak. 9. Stand 2 
upon thy feet. 10, How shall his kingdom stand? u. He 
standeth not in the truth. 12. He set him 3 in the midst. 
1 Imperfect. g 2 Aor. 3 Neut., referring to natSCov, little child, 

66. Second Conjugation. Class II. Verbs in -w(h. 
(a) Certain Verbs, with consonant stems, strengthen the 
Present (and Imperfect) by the syllable -w. Some vowel-stems 
take -vvv. Thus :~r- 
Consonant Stems : 

Sclk-j deUvvfu, show 

\ivy-, fdyvvfii, mix 

irt\y-, v^yvvpn, pierce 

£ay-, p-fjyvvfM, break, rend 
Also 6X-, dXkvjM, for SXvvfu, destr-y; 

Vowel Stems : 

Pt- t hvvfu t clothe 

%®~, frdnrvvfii, gird 

po-, p&pvvfu, strengthen 

srrpo-, a-Tpd)vvvfii 5 strew, scatter, furnish ; Perf. Pass. 

i&rptafiai 
©•§€-, (r^ivvvfii, extinguish 

(&) These verbs are only occasionally conjugated after the 
model of verbs in -f«. Most of them have cognate forms in -0, 
as BeiKvtiu, formed regularly. In the tenses, other than Pres. 
and Imperf., they are formed from the simple stem, as Fut. 

(c) The most important word of this class is BXkvfM, found in 
the N.T. only in composition with &7r6- t Act. &ir6XKv/ju t Mid. 
and Pass. awoXKvfiaL. It is chiefly found in tenses derived from a 
collateral stem diroXc-, Act. Fut. diroAecw, once a7ro\Q ; 1 Aor. 
aird>\e<Ta ; Perf. , with neuter meaning, I perish I &ir6KtaKa ; 
Mid. Fut. awokovfAaL ; 2 Aor. a-wwkb^rjv ; Pres. Part, ol awoXkti- 
(xevoi, the perishing, 

(d) Vowel-stems in this class generally insert cr- in Perf. and 
I Aor. Pass. Thus <tfev6-f)&o[Mu } K€Kepaa/iho$» 



§68] EXERCISE: CLASS 11 

07. Exercise XVIII. Class II. Verbs in -|u. 



'g^f Vocabulary. ^ 

^ Verbs. 

Notes 



ap.c^Uvwji.i, clothe 
ippoxro (perf. mid. from po-) } 
Farewell! (as if, Be strong) 

ir€pi|»vvvjJt,i, perf. pass, irep^- 



Nouns and Adjectives, ^ 

Notes 

&v<&y €W * ~ ou » t< ^j u PP er cham- 
ber 
do-KoSj -oO, 6, wine-skin 
of vo$i -ov, 6, w/ȣ 
opyfy -7js f ^, wrath 



JL\. U JLli# 

Dative. The Dative indicates the receiver of information or 
tidings. Hence ddwvfu governs two cases, the ace. of the thing 
shown, the dat. of the person. See I and 7 (where the inf. sup- 
plies the place of the direct object). 

Translate : — 
I. k&K€ipo$ tifjuv 8elga dvcbyeov piiya iarp^jxivov* 2. pif/gei 6 
vios oTpos tovs ae/cote. 3. 'ESTriordra, 'ETrto-rdra, dwoW^eda, \ 
4. edpop rb Trpofiarbv fiov rb a7ro\(a\6s. 5. ical Opl^iKTTJs K€<pa\i]$ 
i/fiwy ov firf dT&Xrjrai. 6, ^errwerav vp,Qv al 6ar<pfes irepiefaa/A,ivai. 
7, ri% viredei^ev vpZv <f>\rp%v aitb ttjs /*eXXo^<r^s dpyyjs ; 

Render into Greek :-— 
I. He who willeth to save his life will lose it. 2. They were 
seeking to destroy Him. 3. Of those whom Thou hast given Me 
I lost none. 4. He showeth.;. Him. all the kingdoms of the 
world. 5. He showed them His hands and His feet. 6. Show 
thyself to the priest. 7. Fare ye well ! 8. The wine-skins are 
rent. 

68, Defective Verbs. 
(a) Some Verbs of frequent occurrence take their tenses from 
more than one stem ; as in English, Pres. / go, Past / went 
(from wend). 



96 DEFECTIVE VERBS [§ 6$ 

(b) The principal * Defective ' Yerbs are the following : — 

From stem alp€-, alpia), take (in comp. tcaffaipiw, take down % 
wpoatpovfiai, I purpose, etc.) (mid. alpov/jLai } I choose) , atprfo-a), 
atpirjffOfAajLi fiprjKa, yprj/Mu, ypiOyv, alped-qao^ai. 

Stem IX- ; Second Aor. Act, f eTXop, Inf. iXdv ; mid. elkd/typ, 
Inf. iXicrBcu. 

ZpXopai, go, come ; Impf. ypxofirji'. 

Other tenses from stem IXv0-, lengthened into IX«t>0- (Fut.), 
contracted into 4X0- ; Fut. eXe^o/xat, Perf. iX^Xvda, Plup. 
iXyXMeLif, 2 Aor. fjXdov\ in the several moods, iXde, IX0&?, 
gXdotfu, kX&eiv, iXQdiv. Also many compounds. 

icrdiu), eat ; Impf. ijcrdiov. 

Stem <j»a"y- ; 2 Aor. tyayov, tpayeiv, Fut. 4>&jo{acu, $&ywm t 
(pdyerai, 3 pi, (pdyovrat. So KareaBiw, to devour, 

opdto, see ; Imperf. id>ptav t Perf. etSpa/ca. 

Stem dir-, dmr- ; Fut. 6\popL(u f 6\pet, or -#, 3^£7cu, 1 Aor. subj. See 

6\p(a/nai i 1 Aor. Pass, &<j)9r}v, 6<pdy]vai, Fut. Pass. 6</>&r}(rofjLai. J^ 

Stem AS- ; 2 Aor. eTSop, fttw, ^efr, £§c£p (^od, an old Imperative <— 

Exi Middle used as an interjection, behold!), 2 Perf. I know { — have 

Notes $een), oWa, ofdas, ot^e^), otdafiev, otdare, ot8acn(p) i Imper. tcrffi, 

tare ; Subj. a'5a), Inf. dd&ai,, Part. c/5c6s, Plup. Ind. f^ew, 

I knew > Fut. ele^o-w, I shall know (Heb. viii. 11). 

rpix^i run. 

Stem SpejA- j 2 Aor. gdpapLov, 

tpipw, bear ; Stem oi-, Fut. d<rw. 

Stem 4v€YK- or 4v€K- ; I Aor. ijveyica, 2 Aor. tfveyfcop, imyiceiv, 
Perf. hrjvoxa, with double reduplication ; 1 Aor. Pass, fytx&w- 
Also irpoecpipW) d<r<pep(a, and other compounds. 

etiroi'*, 2 Aor., / &z^ (supplies Present and Imperfect from 
$imjlI, second conjugation) ; stem lw- ; 1 Aor. etwa. 

Stem Ip- ; Fut. Ipidi, epQ, Perf. ' efyn/zca, Perf. Pass, etprffitu. 
Stem ps- ; 1 Aor, Pass., ippkQw or e/Lffldyv, Part. faBets.. 



See 



§69] 



DEFECTIVE VERBS i EXERCISE 



97 



Vocabulary* 



(See preceding list. ) 

Nouns and Adjectives, 
a|ACLpra\6$j -ov f 6 , sinner 
dp/ireXwv, -c3foj ? 6, vineyard 
dp&para, -drew, r% ^zV^f 
i<rxvp6s»'-a, -6?, strong 
p,CTdvoia, -,as, % change of 

mind $ repentance 
|!/tfJTis ; interrog., «#y <?#£ ? 
vci^s* -o9j 6, temple i sanctuary 
crrdxvSi -w>s, 6 5 ^r of corn 
'$dpuraio$, -ou* d, Pharisee 

Adverbs* 
$irou, where > whither 
Taxtov, neut. compar. of raxtfs, 

. (as adv..), #wr$ swiftly 
StarC, wherefore f 

Translate :— 

I. §p%€rm 6 taxvpbrepte $aqv* 2, ovk ihrfkvda Ka\i<rai Sucaiovs 
iXXi afiapTO)\oi>$ els /ierdmcw. 3. &al iriKKop ol fiad^ral avroO 
roh crraxvas, /cai ijcdtov* 4. /cal i<payop kal exoprdcffytrav wdpr^s. 
5. tdwfiev rb f^fia tqOto rb yeyopSs* 6* ^XXgs $*€ fc&rei, . jcai ofcm 

3ttov 0$ 0e\€i$, 7» /«Jns f]peyK€P aurtp tpayeip ; • 8* erpex^P 3£ ol 

S00 d^o d/toy, cat 6 iLWos fiad^Tris wpo48pafi€ rix^op rod ILirpov $ Kal 

E\</ TjMe-wpGrm els to f/LPrffAetop* 9* Hrepos td&p avrbp gtpyj, Kal <n>e£ 

< — »avr<3j' et 10. iwtdvfiij&eTe /dew tSp iff&epQp rod vtod tqv dp&p^WQP 



Verbs, 

*&vrX&>, -w, «Traz& (from a ves- 
sel) 

dirlpxoj&a.^ depart 

*&iroKjp£vo|iaL, dep. 1 aor* 
$MT€Kpl0riv 9 sometimes dire* 
KpipipLifjp f ''answer 

*imrtipd£a>, fut. *<rw» /#/ & 1^ 
/at/, lim/l 

4££pX0{JL<u } come forth 

*{iri0vpi6»j -to, desire earnestly 

*irpd<r$oicda>, -«, /$$X* yfor, «:- 
"peet 

Trpotpcx^, 2 aor* irpeiSpapov, 
run before y outrun 

*t(XXo>, pluck 



lMip f Kal ovk 6$€ade* 



Jl JL* 



I* Ed el d.&px&fMPOS) 1 if IXXof TpQcrdoK&fAep ; 2, JXIerco 7} (3a@*t- 
\ela <nw* ■ 3, £/>%€<r0e, #n wdwra if % '%roifjt,& i<rr$. 4* jULampm$ $ 



See 



98 DEFECTIVE VERBS- [§69 

Sens ipdyerm &pr&y h r% fiaffikeiq. rod 0eos5, 5. ml direKpl$7j<rav 2 
fity eldhai. 6. ovk jjSeire 8tl iv rots 3 rod UarpSs fiov Set elvai fie ; 
7. fjh&ov iirl rb fjLPrjfia (pipovercu & 'rjrolfia&av 4 ■ dpdbfiara. 8. teal 
Xiyei avroTs, ' ' Avrk^aaTe 5 vvv ml (fiepere 5 r$ (Lpxt-rpinXlptp' ol M 
tfveyKav, 9. etwev atircp 6 'I^dous 8ri 6 fflprjr at, Ovk iicweipa&eis 
Ktiptov rbv Qe6v o~ov. IO. direX06vres d£ edpov kcl0u)$ elprficei 
adrd?s, 

1 ' The Coming One/ a title of the Messiah. 8 Understand avrovs 
(ace. before inf.). s Understand ' the affairs '^business 1 or 'the dwell- 
ings '= Temple. 4 Aorist with pluperfect sense. 5 Note distinction 
between Pres. and Aor. Imperative. * on introducing quotation, like 
' inverted commas.' 



Render into Greek : — ■ 

I, He will come and destroy those wicked men, and will give 
the vineyard to others. 2. Remember * me, Lord, when 2 Thou 
comest in Thy kingdom. 3. I have come in the name of My 
Father, and ye receive 8 Me not ; if 4 another come in his own 
name, that (man) ye will receive. 4. This voice we heard, 
borne 5 from heaven. 5. Holy men of God were moved 6 by the 
Holy Spirit. 6. What have ye come out to see? 7 7. Heaven 
and earth will pass away, but My words will never 8 pass away. 
8. I know Thee who Thou art, the Holy One of God. 9. They 
knew Him to be the Christ. 10. But do thou remain in (the 
things) which 9 thou didst learn, knowing from 10 whom thou 
didst learn (them), n. If 4 we say, From heaven, He will say, 
Wherefore then did ye not believe Him? 12. Father, for- 
give ll them, for they know not what they do. 

1 1 Aor. s 'Whensoever.' Particles with <xf require subjunctive (§51. 3); 
use 2 Aor. 3 Aafxfidvb). 4 edv. 5 i Aor. 6 l Borne ' = impelled. 
7 2 Aor. 8 Strong double negative with Subj. 9 Dat. by 'attraction. 
See §53 rule 6. M imp u, with gen. u a Aor. 



§.7o] PREPOSITIONS. ' 99 

PART III. INDECLINABLE WORDS, 
Prepositions, Adverbs, Conjunctions, Particles, 

70. Prepositions. 

Many of the Prepositions have already been given in the 
Vocabularies. They are all here subjoined, in a connected 

view. 

(a) The general meaning of the ease governed modifies 
the application of the preposition ; while the general meaning 
of the preposition again determines the force of the case. 
Hence arise almost innumerable shades of significance. 

\h) Generally (see § 174)* the Genitive signifies origin, 
'Whence'? the Dative, connexion, < Where '? the Accusative, 
approcch, « Whither ' ? Certain Prepositions accordingly govern 
but one case, others two, others three, 

1, Prepositions Governing the Genitive -only*-' 
avri, against, over against, instead of: &v9 f Qp (' in return for 
which things '), wherefore. 
atro (from the exterior), from, away from, 
Ik, !§ (from the interior), from, out of 
-n-pd, before, of time or place. 

2. Dative only, 

lv, in (of time, place, or element), among. 
criSv (co-operation), with, 

3. Accusative only. 
avd (up in), only (N.T.) in the phrases dvk pk<rov t tn the midst 
of\ av& /xepof, in turns, and largely in composition. 
4s (to the interior), into, to, with a view to, for, 

4. Genitive and Accusative, 
Sid, through. Gen., through, by means of 

Ace, on account of or owing to* 



IOO PREPOSITIONS [§ 7© 

k&t&, down. Gen., against, 

Acc, according to, throughout \ during, over. 

jjierd (association). Gen. , together with, among. 
Ace, after, 

irepC, around. Gen., about \ concerning, on behalf of * 
Acc, about \ round about, 

vrrip, over. Gen., above, on behalf df for, in reference to, 
Acc, beyond^ above. 

•uiro, under. Gen., by (of the agent). 
Acc. , under ; close upon. 

5. Genitive, Dative, and Accusative. 
4?r{, upon. Gin., on (as springing from), over, in the pres* 
ence, or at the time of. 

Dat., upon (as resting on), in addition to, on account of 
Acc, upon, unto, over (of time, place, or extent). 

Tretpdj beside. Gen., from (used of persons). 
Dat., near (generally of persons). 
Acc , beside, beyond, contrary to. 

irpos, towards. Gen., /»r (only in Acts xxvii, 34). 
Dat., at, close by. 

Acc, towards, in reference to, with (John i. 1), in considera- 
tion of. 

For further details, and special uses of the Prepositions, see Handbook, 
§§ 288-314. 

(h) The Prepositions are largely used ill composition witK 
verbs and other parts of speech, their general meaning being 
retained, though variously modified. One preposition &jjuj»^ 
about, around, is found in N.T. only in composition, as 
&fjt,<pi hvvfu , i" clothe, 



Notes 






§ 70 PREPOSITIONS: EXERCISE IOI 

71. Exercise XX. 

Reading Lesson on the Prepositions. 
{For words not in preceding Vocabularies, seep. 123.) 

I. 

See I. opare p-fj rts micbv drrl ica/cov rivl dirodip. 

2. dv0' &v 6ca Iv tt} emtio, etware iv t$ <j>url ckow^ercu 
Kal 8irpl>s rb ods ^XaX^<r«rt 4v rots rapidois KijpvxHtreTCu Itrl 

3. o?k l<m fia$ifHis Strip rbv MdemXop airrov. Notes 

4. tovto rb woT^piov^ i] Kaivi) Sidd-qicr} Iv t$ cellar/ pov, rb ifrip 
^/tWJ' itcxvv6fjt,€vov, 

5. Be-qBtire vfieh virlp ipov wpbs rbv Ktipiov, 

6. vptv ixaplcrdir} to iSirip Xpcarov off pbvop rb l its glvtov wht- 
retiav dXXd Kal rb virep avrov irdvxew* 

7. €K roO TXijptiparos airov tj/jius irdvrts iX&pdflev ml x&pw 

8. 0! 5£ l-rrl t9j$ virpas, ot, Brav &Kofo(o<ri, p,€T& %apas BixoPrai 
rbv \6yop. 

9. Xpurrbs %ira% irepl ap,apriwv Giraffe, dtKaios virhp dUmv. 

10. f X$e*/ els ?> ddXaatratf tt}$ TaXiXalas dvd /iecrop tw tyfow 
Ae/caw 6Xem> 

11. fra TrXTjpwdrj rb jiifjOkv vtfh rod Kvpiov Sid rod irpofajrov, 

12. icai &re<r0e pta-ou'pevoi vwo wdvrm Sid to Uop.dp.ov. 

13. Td wdvra St* a^rou /cal €ts aur^ I'/crtorai. s 

14. kc^ irepl TerdpT7]v <pvXa,K7)v ttjs WKrfo fyxerai <trpb$ aurofc 
irepmaTwv lirl ttjs OaXda-crrfs. 

1$, imvos di iXeyev iripl rod vaov rod <r&paro$ aiirov. 

II. 

1. ducat<a64rres odv in ir terms dp^v W l%o^ei> (or fywuev) 1 wpbi 
rbv Bebv Sid rov Evpfol; ^uw 'I^oO Xptarov. 

2. c'7« iffopat avT(p els 2 iraripa /cat ai/rds Icrrai ^ttot €ts 2 ui6i>. 

3. rd crdfiparov Sid t5^ dvdpwwov iyhero, Kal ovx b &v0puwo$ 
Sid r6 <r&@fia,TW. 



102 PREPOSITIONS: ADVERBS [§ 7* 

4. of viol rod alwvos rotrov ^pow/wSrepoi virlp 8 t«*s wtodf t*> 

0&>r6s €ls tV 7€^eap rr}P iavrQv dfflv. 

5. fiddere d/ir' e^oO. ^ 

6. «ai vvv U^bv A*e, Udrep t wap& (reavry ry 5% fr «Xe* 
jrpo 4 to0 toj> kSctijlov eh at irapa <xo£: 

7. gat adr6$ itmr irpb irdirrw jcal rk vivra Iv aur$ <rwAmj- 



mv. h 



See 
Notes 



8. p)) trpb Kaipov rt Kpivere. 

9. o£ ^ 6 fa«* ow roes 'Wat'ow, o! SI criv rofs dTrwroXotf . 

10. jcal ratT7)P rfy #>*% ^m i^oUaixev If ovpapov frexfleuw 
<ri>v aur^ oVres iv t<? 0,7% opet, 

b^ II. irapa, 7 tou narp6s e£rj\0op. , „ 

EW 12. jcal aflrfo ^ An-d* -wapa t^ Ufunpf Tepvyvapir, Km etdep 
^ TXota Mo karQra irapa rip H m v, ol dt &\ms Air' atrw &wo- <— 
fi&vres iifkvvov rd dkrva. ^^ 

13. ^ dSutfa irapa r£ 8e£ ; ^ 7^ 0tr0 - 8 

14. efyapurru r£ 6e£ ^ou cirl ira<rS if /Mveiq. vfiwv w&vrore cv 
rd^ Mem ^ouiSirlp iriww^, |*ra. xapas t>. Wjj«* towv- 
/*e?>os, 9 eirl tJ mivwiq. umwp its rd euayyeAioi>. 

Part I 1 Article qualifying Infinitive. » Lit. « instead of ; hence 
in place of; one measure of grace succeeding to another; or, grace upon 
crr^rf* * s Perf. Pass, of ktCCw* „ t , 

Part II ^Various reading ; see R. V. (Rom. v. .> » ' for/ denoting 

J^U^, after the Substantive Verb. • A stronger form of -mp^on 

Can the u ual Genitive or fl. * 'Before,' in order of being or of su ; 

6 * P«.«.nt Perfect.' 6 ol iwV ... ol Si. ( Some ... others, 
premacy. Present i-ertect. * g d 'making 

7 Compare irapa here, and m 6. ^ » isee 9 55. *•/ A " u ' 

for my own part/ or simply 'making.* 

72. Adverbs. 
1. Adverbs ffcom Nouns.— Certain cases fixed -absolutely 

to express quality, manner, place, or time. 

(/The Accusative; as d*^, M lit" <U P to ( thls > f omt * 
reidr, ^ ^ ^^ ^ So the Accusative Neuter of many 
Adjectives, both singular and plural ; often with the Article, as 
rb %our6v f furthermore ; r4 iroXXd, >r ^ most part Some 
Adverbs indicate obsolete Adjectives, .e>fa*p*>> to-day \ rip*>* 
to-m&rr0w\ %Qk, yesterday* 



See 
Notes 



§72] ADVERBS 103 

\b)- The Dative , as lUq, privately ; ire^, by land. Here the <^7 

iota subscript is often omitted : irdprTj, always ; ek?}, without a E W 

Notes 
cause. 

(c) The Genitive, as in atfroO, //fcm;, and other forms. 

(*/) ^ Preposition with its case written as one word, as irapa- 
XPVV*> immediately, lit. < along with the business ' ; ifatyviis, 
suddenly, lit. * from a steep descent ' ; leaflets, in order, lit. 
'according to a special course. 5 

(e) Old case-endings, as ovpav66ep, from heavm ', frattoMev, 
from childhood '; ire pvcri, last year. 

2. Adverbs from Adjeetives. 

(a) The most common form of Adverbs is that in -«f, 
answering exactly in meaning to the English terminal -/jj/, and 
affixed to Adjective-stems of all forms ; the stem-ending, where 
needful, being modified. 

For example :— Skcuos, Just, Sucaio- ; .Bucalw, fwtly : Tras, 
all, (iravT- ; irdvrw, wholly : dX^s, true, Vkrfitsr- ; dX^ws, 

Participles may also yield this adverbial form, as form ((torn 

«v, stem 6vt-), really. 

An Adverb formed from an Adjective sometimes appears in 
two forms, as Ta X t and rax^s, quickly, riOts (for eMu) and 
evdtus, immediately. 

(b) Comparison. 

The Comparative of Adverbs is generally the neuter singu- 
lar accusative of the corresponding Adjective ; the superla- 
tive, the neuter plural. Thus: from rdxvs, rd%iop, more 
quickly ; rdx^ra, most quickly ; from dya66s, piXriop, better. 

Some comparatives take the termination -cos, as irepiafforipm, 

more abundantly. 

An irregular comparative and superlative are paXkop, more ; 
p&te&ra, most. So dew, nearer ; &y%ur™> nearest. 

3. Adverbs from Pronouns.— The several classes of 

Adjective Pronouns have corresponding Adverbs, of which the 
following must be noted. The correlation of the different 
classes will be seen at once from the Table. 



104 



ABVMRBS 



U72 



" "" !WTO 


Demonstrative. 


Relative. 


Inierrogmiwe* 


Indefinite* 


, Time • 

i 


t<5t€, then 
v$v, now 


8rf, when 


iroTf, w&£^ f 


iroT€ , sometime 


Place . 


a^rov, here 
»$€, here 
£*c€i, there 


oS, where 


irot), where ? 


irov, somewhere 


-v 


IvGdSe, hither 








i 

1 


4 vt€v0€v, thence 


80€v, whence 


ir©0€v, whence? 




I Manner 

I, 


o#r»(s), thus, so 


«s, <w 


irSs, &?w f 


tr«(s), somehow 



The Indefinite Adverbs are enclitic, and are thus distinguished 
from the Interrogatives. 

Indirect or dependent Interrogatives are made as in the Pro- 
nouns, § 38 (<:),' by the prefix of A, as 8tov, 6irm, 

A frequent interrogative is made with €w, until* See 7, be- 
low. Thus, 2(a$ ir&re ; &hp /^^ t 

4- Numeral Adverbs.— These end in -is, -k«, or -ttKiS, as 
Us, twice ; rpfc, thrice ; iirrdKis, seven times ; e$5o/w7*corra/cts, 
seventy times ; ToWaiusy many times. #ira£, <wwv ^?r a//, is ex- 
ceptionally formed ; 6<nw«s, <ay fl/few #j, is from the relative. 

5. Ancient Verbal Forms, used as Adverbs, are Sevpa, 
hither, with its plural, SeOre. These are generally employed as 
Imperatives, * Come thou (or ye) hither ! ' 

Some verbs in -££«, expressing national peculiarity, form an 
Adverb in -urrt. Thus, from iXKyvipa, iXkyvurrl, in the Greek 
language ; similarly, efipa'Cari, in the Hebrew language. 

6. Adverbs from Prepositions. — Many Prepositions 
have a corresponding Adverb in -o>. Thus, from ava,, &j>u>, up- 
wards', and from Acara, K<iT(a r downwards. So lirw, within; 

.Ufa, without. The termination. -06V gives a genitive force ; af 
&j?(d$ep,yrom above ; £tjto0€v,from without. 

Once a Preposition without change is employed as an Adverb, 
' iwip #yc&, I (am) more (2 Cor. xi. 23). 

7» Mverbs used like Prepositions. — These govern 



See 



§ 73] ADVERBS: PARTICLES 105 

Nouns, and really form a second class of Prepositions, additional 
to those in § 114, as &/jm, together with (dat); &vev, with* 
out) tfxpi(s), or fjt,ixpi>{s), until; heim (-«>), for the sake of; 
ivwvlov, before^ in the presence of; Iws, as far as, until \ irk^v^ 
except', x»p/sj separated from, without .-all, except %«, with gen. <^— 

EW 8. Negative Adverbs are ov (before a vowel, o$k ; before EU 

Notes -ji i.\ i T^ J i Notes 

an aspirated vowel, ot/%) 3 #&?/, and {M), «<tf. 

(a) ot> denies absolutely ; jm}, on some expressed or implied 
condition. The former is called the * categorical,' or 'objee- 

See live' negative; the latter, the 'conditional,' or 'subjective.' See 
^Y Both words are used in composition with ns, n (see 12), also ^u 

with the indefinite Adverbs in the Table, § 7 2 (3)j as oflww, not «— 

yet ; fi^wore, never in any case, 

(b) Mrfj is also used as the Interrogative Adverb, expecting 
the answer, no ; and in composition with the interrogative rls, 
adds a kind of appeal to the hearers, as though enlisting their 
assent to the negative ; thus, pApi iy6; Is it II i.e. 'It is not 
I, is it? ' oil (ovxi) in interrogations expects the answer, yes. 



73. Conjunctions and other Particles. 

Conjunctions denote (1) annexation; (2} comparison ; (3) 
Jisjunction ; (4) antithesis ; (5) condition ; (6) reason ; (7) in- 
ference, or (8) result. 

1. Annexation. — The Copulative Conjunctions are Kal, 
and) also, even; re, and, also. The latter is generally subordin- 
ate : t€ ... Kal s both ...and, not only ... but; sometimes ml ... re, 
")t re ... T€. Very generally, however, both ... and ate expressed 
by Kal ... Kal. 

2. Comparison.-— As Conjunctions of Comparison, the 
particles m, as\ wawep, just as; Ka0&$, like as, are used; 
generally in correlation with the Adverb otirm, so. (Compare 
§ 72.(3), Table). 

3. Disjunction. —The disjunctive particles are 1f, or ; % ... i} % 
either ... or (in general) ; ^rot ... if, either ... or (as an exclusive 
alternative) ; efre ... elVe, whether ... whether* 



106 PARTICLES [§73 

4. Antithesis. — The Antithetic Conjunctions are dXXd 
(orig. neuter plural of 8Xkos) and U, both signifying but. The 
former is the stronger. With U the particle p.iv often stands 
in the preceding sentence, and may be rendered indeed or on the 
one hand (84, on the other), or, more frequently, may be left un- 
translated, marking simply that the two classes stand in real or 
formal antithesis. 

5. Condition.™ The chief Conditional Particle is el, if; 
compounded with &p, lav, if (possibly), with the subjunctive. 
See § 77* 8. 

6. Cause. — Particles expressive of a reason (causal) are 8tl, 
that, because; yip, for; 8l6tl, because; iirel, since. 

7. Inference. — The chief Inferential Particles are odv, there- 
fore \ roivvv, then ; &pa, consequently ; 8l6, wherefore ; roiyapovp, 
accordingly. 

8. Purpose.— The 'Final' Conjunctions are tva, in order 
tkaty&s and Bwm, so that; fify that not, lest', &<tt€ (gen, inf. ), so that. 

PartieieS Of Emphasis.— The chief are ye, at least, indeed 
(enclitic) ; and foj, certainly, now. To these may be added the 
enclitics wep, very, verily, and rot, certainly, found in eombina- 
ation with other words, as dye, if at least', efirep, if at all; 
iwetdijwep, since verily ; pivroi, however. 

Interrogative Particles .—The chief are el, the 'con- 
ditional' */, used elliptically, * Tell us if— ;' ij, simply indicat- 
ing a question, and in general requiring no English word as 
equivalent. 

Interjections.— These are generally but the transcripts of 
natural instinctive sounds. Words of this kind in the N.T. are 
&, 01 oh! §a, ah ! expressive. of pain and terror; ova, ah t ex- 
pressing scorn and hatred; oval, woe! alas I .often governing a 
dative, as oval vpuv, woe unto you ! alas for you ! 

The imperative form, tSe, see,is often treated interjectionally, 
but still more frequently the old imperative middle of the same 
Verb is employed, accented as a particle : t8ov t hi behold I 



§74] 



107 



PART IV. NOTES ON SYNTAX. 



THE chief rules, which have been given as needed in connexion 
with the Exercises, are here set down in order, for convenient 
reference. The numbers are those of the pages where the rules 
occur, and where examples and illustrations may be found. 

For further details and copious illustrations from the N.T. ot 
each several point, the reader is referred to the Handbook. 

74, The Concords. 

First Concord. Verb and Nominative (19). Substantive, 
or Copulative Verbs (as be, become, be called) have the Predicate 
in the same case as the Subject (19, 82). 

Exception. A Neuter Plural Nominative may take a Singu- 
lar Verb (42). , . . .. . ■ 

Obs. I. Where the Subject is a Personal Pronoun, it is not 

expressed in Greek, excepting for emphasis (19). . 

2 Where a Verb has two Subjects, it. may be put in the 
plural, or may agree with, and immediately follow, the former 
of the two. 

Second Concord. Adjective and Substantive (19). The 
rule applies also to Adjective Pronouns, to the Article, and to 

the Participles. «,»..• 

Obs Where there is no ambiguity as to the Substantive 
intended, as man, thing, it is often omitted in Greek, being 
implied in the Adjective (31). 

Third Concord, Relative and Antecedent (40). Thi 
agreement here is in Gender, Number and Person, the«waf 
the Relative being determined by its own sentence. ; 

Exceptions. 1. The Relative is sometimes 'attracted into 
the case of its Antecedent (70). 

2. The Relative may also be « attracted '. into the gender and 
nnmber of the Predicate after the verb to be. 



108 NOTES ON SYNTAX 



i%n 



75, The Article. 

i. The Article was originally a demonstrative {42). Hence 
its use with Adjectives (31), with Participles (42, 57), and with 
Adverbs, as rh, dvta, the things above. 
2. It expresses defniteness, and is so used with Abstract 
^e Nouns (19), and with Proper Names (42). On the contrary, its 9^ 
^ omission implies indefiniteness (64). EW 

— > 03s. In Greek there is no Indefinite Article (15), Its place, S^ 
~S+ however, is sometimes supplied by the numeral one (35), and by <— 
Exl the Indefinite Pronoun « any,' « a certain one J (16). ^3 

es 3. Often the Article stands for a Personal Pronoun, 3 pers. Notes 
(42). Sometimes it has the sense of an unemphatic Possessive 
Pronoun ; as for « his hand, 5 Greek the hand. 

4. The Article is often repeated with a Noun and an Attribu- 
tive Adjective (42}. Thus 'the good man' may be written in 
Greek as the man, the good. So with Adjective-Pronouns : £ my 
house,' may be expressed the house, the mine; or else the my. 
house. 

76. Cases of Nouns, 

i. Nominative : the Subject of an Active, or the Object of a 
Passive Verb. (See above on the First Concord.) 

Obs. The Nominative with Article may sometimes stand for 
the Vocative (84, note 3), 

ii. Genitive: the ease denoting origin (19} governed by 
Prepositions (99, 100). Hence also several uses j— 

1. The Possessive, with sign of {19). The Genitive of a Per- 
sonal Pronoun is often employed instead of the corresponding 
Possessive Pronoun {42). Thus « my brother,' Greek the 
brother of me. 

2. Mark of Attribute or Quality (69, 82), as words of grace, 
the steward of unrighteousness. 

3. As the Object of Verbs of sense, excepting sight and some- 
times hearing (57), a£ touch (63), taste, etc. So with the Verb 
take hold of ($3), and Verbs oi remembering (Bo) and forgetting. 



| 7 6] NOTES ON SYNTAX 109 

4. As a secondary object; as with Verbs of filling, the Genitive 
denoting the material, sign with {69) ; Verbs of buying and 
selling, the Genitive denoting the price, sign for (83). 

Obs. Verbs of filling may also take a Dative, or even an 
Accusative, of the material. 

5. After the Comparative degree of Adjectives ; with the sign 

than {32). 

6. Genitive Absolute. A Noun and Participle standing in a 
sentence without being dependent on other words, the Noun to 
be rendered first (67). But the phrase will often be turned in 
translation into a verbal clause. Thus, 'He (gm.\ not being 
far (gen.) from the house, the centurion sent to Him ' t render, 
* When He was not far/ etc. 

iii. Dative : the case denoting association (19) governed by 
Prepositions {99, 100). Its chief uses are the following :— 

1. As the Object of Verbs denoting mental affection or direc- 
tion (64), as worship (80), or service {57). These Verbs in 
Greek are really intransitive, meaning 'to be worshipful to* 
(recipient) and 'to -render service to' (recipient). 

2. As the secondary Object of Verbs of giving and the like : 
denoting the recipient, <I give this (ace.) to you 5 ; 'He 
showed the truth (ace) to the disciples (dat.).' 

3. The dative without a Preposition is the case of the In- 
strument ; sign with or by {6$. The Agent (genitive governed 
by two) must be distinguished from this. 

4. With Substantive Verbs the dative denotes possession (42) 
Thus, * He had a daughter J might be expressed in Greek, 'A 
daughter was to him.' A very common idiom in the N.T. 

iv. Accusative : denoting direction towards (19), governed 
by Prepositions (99, 100). 

i. This case is chiefly employed as the Object of Active Verbs 

IS7). 
2, Verbs of asking take two accusatives (80) % 'She asked 

[of] Mm (ace) the kingdom (ace.).' 



110 NOTES ON SYNTAX. [§76 

3. An idiom known as cognate accusative is not uncommon, 
the Accusative extending the notion of the Verb (83) ; as, 
« They saw a sight,' * he feared a fear/ The Magi * rejoiced a 
great joy ' (Matt. ii. 10). 

77. Tenses and Moods of Verbs. 

1. The Aorist Indicative in general simply names an 
action or state as past, leaving undetermined any question of its 
completedness. The Aorist is thus to be distinguished from the 
Imperfect, which expressly describes a past action or state as 
continuous and incomplete (64, 83) : ' The seed fell (Aor.) upon 
good ground, and was yielding (impf.) fruit ' (Matt. xiii. 8). So 
in almost innumerable instances. 

2. The Aorist frequently puts an action into the past where 
there is nothing in the context to define the time referred to 
more precisely: * The former treatise have I made (Aor.), O 
Theophilus,' In such cases the appropriate rendering is not 
the preterite, but the Perfect. 'The former treatise I made/ 
would at once suggest the question , when? The Perfect in 
English, like the Aorist in Greek, does not suggest this. 
Hence, in many cases, the true equivalent of the Greek Aorist is 
the English Perfect, 

3. The Aorist, like the English Present, is sometimes used to 
express a fact which is true essentially, and independently of time, 
past, present, or future (« Gnomic Aorist'): 'This is My be- 
loved Son, in whom I am well pleased' (Aor.). So in the 
Magnificat^ Luke i. 51-54, a succession of Aorists declare 
universal laws of the Divine government ; and might be rendered, 
* He sheweth strength with His arm ; He scattereth the proud,' 

etc. 

4. In all other moods than the Indicative, the Aorist loses 
any reference to time, and merely names the action, as distin- 
guished from the Present in these moods (so-called ; really the 
Imperfect), which tense describes the action as continuous. 
Thus, in the Infinitive, 'He made His disciples to embark (Aor.), 
and to go forward ' (Pres.- Impf.). 



§78] NOTES ON SYNTAX. Ill 

5. In the Imperative the same distinction is very marked : 
« Take up ( Aor. ) thy bed, and walk ' (Pres. -Impf. ). The Aorist 

Imperative is used by preference in emphatic commands : ' Do 
this '. (at once) ; not 'Be doing this' (Pres.- Impf.). In com- 
mands having reference to the future, either tense may be used ; 
the Present would view the contemplated action as continuous, 
the Aorist as a. succession of repeated single acts: 'Be doing 
this habitually ' (Pres.-Impf.) ; 'Do this whenever the occasion 
arrives ' (Aorist). 

6. In prohibitions, prj is used with the Present Imperative. 
But if the sense requires an Aorist, Greek idiom substitutes a 
Subjunctive for the Imperative. Thus: * Fear not' might be 
expressed as (see, understood) that-not M) you should fear (Subj. 
Aor. ). 

7. The Perfect denotes a past action of which the conse- 
quences remain (64), as yiypaxrai, 'it is written ' j more exactly, 

* it stands written. 5 

S. Conditional Sentences in general conform to one of 
the following three types : — 

(1) Where a condition is assumed as ground of an assertion : 

* If he says— said—will say this, he errs — erred— will err.' In 
such sentences if is expressed by d with the Indicative, followed 
by the Indicative. 

(2) Where the condition is viewed as impossible or unfulfilled, 
the reference being to the past : ' If he had said this, he would 
have erred.' Here if is expressed by el with the past Indicative, 
followed by the past Indicative with &v. 

(3) Where the condition itself is regarded as doubtful : ' If he 
should say this, he will err.' In such sentences if is expressed 
by i&p with the Subjunctive, followed by the Indicative, generally 
Future. 

78, The Infinitive. 

1. The Infinitive is a Verbal Substantive, and thus may take 
the Article (70) in any case, always in the neuter gender, and 
may be governed by Prepositions. 



112 NOTES ON SYNTAX. [§§78,79 

2. The most general use of the Infinitive is as the object of 
another Verb (67), and as especially signifying purpose, inten 
tion, result. 

3. The Infinitive takes its subject in the Accusative case, to 
be rendered with the sign that (67), the Infinitive being trans- 
lated as a Finite Verb. Thus literally, * We will not this man 
to rule over us,' render, 'We will not that this man should, J 
etc. When the Infinitive is treated as a Noun with Preposition, 
this Subject-Accusative is often to be rendered as a Genitive, 
thus: literally, 'on the king (ace.) to return * (inf. with Art.), 
on the king's return. 

4. The infinitive sometimes depends upon an Adjective (57). 

79. Participles. 

1. The Participles are Verbal Adjectives t and as such conform 
to the Second Concord, see above. Like the Infinitive, or 
Verbal Noun, they have the distinction of tense : 6 iroiwp, ' he 
who does ' ; 6 7r<u?f<ras, ' he who did ' ; 6 7rot?7<JW» ' he who will 
do' ; 6 ireiroi,7)Ku)$ i i he who has done.' 

2. The Participle with Article (42, 57), in its different cases, 
is one of the most frequent of idioms in the N.T., and must be 
very carefully noted. 

3. Very frequently we find the combination of an Aorist 
Participle with a finite Verb, to express one complex action, 
regarded as consisting of two parts. In all such cases, the 
notion of the Participle is subordinated to that of the Verb. The 
subordination is generally that of time, when the Participle 
expresses an immediately precedent action : ' Having arisen, he 
came,' etc. (83). Or it may be the subordination of a minor 
detail to one more important ; when the Participle is contem- 
poraneous with the Verb : ' Answering, he said ' ; a case m 
which Participle and Verb might conceivably be reversed : ' He 
answered, saying' (Aor.). See $$, 



GENERAL VOCABULARY 



I. GREEK-ENGLISH : to the Words contained 

in this Primer 

II. ENGLISH-GREEK : to the Exercises 



u» u 



JL Jl &JL 



VOCABULARY 



GENERAL VOCABULARY I. 

Greek-English : to the words contained in this 

Primer. 

The Personal Pronouns, p. 36 ; the Verb cIjaC, to be, p. 8j; 
and the Numerals, p. 33, are here omitted ; also some Proper 
Names. 

The figures refer to the pages, where further information re- 
specting the words will be found. 



cryaOos, good . . . 
ttYaXXCacmj exultation 
d-yairdo), to love . . 
d"ydm], love .... 
d'yaiTTjTos, beloved . 



PAGE 

79 

82 

63 

ftyyeXos, messenger, ang&l 26 

27 

3i 
82 

79 

35 
66 

20 



d-ytos, holy . , , . 
ayv6$,pure .... 
ayopd, marketplace 
fry pa, a draught (as of fish) 
dypos, a field . . . 
dyca, to lead, bring 
dSeXtjios, brother . . 
dStKta, unrighteousness 
dSiKOS; unjust . . . 
dfiC, always . . . . 
a€T«$s, <?^/-? .... 
alpeojjiat, to choose . . 
c$p© f to take up, away 
alT€6>, to ask . . , 
aiwV| age ..... 
alwvtos, eternal . . . 
dscd0apTOS, unclean . . 
aKatpeo|J.at, &? /#<:,£ oppor- 
tunity 



31 
82 

41 

31 
96 

72 

92 

24 

79 
81 



dKoXovOta, to follow 
kmvm } to hear . * 
dicpipcSs^ accurately 
&k<mv 9 unwilling 
4XaS| salt • * 
aXctyco, to anoint 
dXtjI^Sj ^w 
4XXd^ but • • 
dXX^XcaV| w£ another * 
ftXXos^ #^r 
d{xapT£a ? sin 
dp.apra>Xds 9 sinner 
dfMfJOTToSj blameless * 
djMrcXos^ w#£ • . * 
dfJ/triX^Vf vineyard 
&|x<f>Uvvv|Uy-A? clothe * 

d|Jl<|>OT€pOl» ^/^ * # 

dva^v^cricw! /p r^^f * 
dvaidXX^! to revive » 
dvdOt||xa 9 votive offering 
dvd[ivT)<ri$, remembrance 
dvdcrracris, resurrection 
&y€|xoS} wittd' . . • , 
dv4}p, OTfl# * . , . 
dvip^iroSi ««## * • • 



PAGE 

92 

56 
82 

73 

63 

29 

69 

40 
40 

92 

97 
56 
73 

97 

95 
40 

86 

81 

82 
82 
41 
26 

■ 20 



£00 Voc&Ai/Ury hUe^dd ™ 3iU to Ust p6toe 



GREEK-ENGUSH 



IIS 



PAGE 



ivCcrrt||j,i f to raise up . 
i,voCjm f to open . 
avr\4«>, to draw (water) 

Efw, upwards . 
dv<&Y €W > upper chamber 
HvmBzVf from above . 
dftv% «Mte . . 
d|ios» worthy . 
d|l«s, worthily . 
$iras, a// . . 
dirdrr), deceit , 
dit^px H ,ai '» ^ depart 
i,f?(x m > to receive, be distant 
tfirurros, unbelieving . 
airXovs, w»^ . . . 
dteOffrom .... 
&iro8£§»}ii» & r^jr . 
diro8ox^> acceptance . 
diroKaX&mrfti, /<? f«Vfl/ 
airoKpCvofiAi, to answer 
dfTOKpvtrr&f to conceal 
diroKTeivci), to kill . . 
diroXa^P&vcdj to receive 

back, .... 
dn^XX-ujAt., /^ destroy . 
diroXtw, to release . . 
dirocTTcXX©, to send forth 
diroff-ToXos, apostle 
Ibme, &irro|MU, to to^ti 
dpeo'Kft), to please . . 
dpcr^t virtue . . . 
dpurroV) breakfast . . 
dp:<e'qj.eu, to $£ satisfied 
dpTos, £*?£<?. . . . 
dpTt>», to season . . 
dpXtttos, ancient , ♦ 



92 
66 

97 

66 

95 
82 

92 

3i 

56 

69 

3i 
97 
66 

3i 
27 

18 

92 

3i 
63 

97 
63 
72 

66 

94 
56 

72 

66 

63 
86 
26 

69 

81 

35 

72 

33 



PAGB 

dpx^j beginning . * . . 18 

dpX°l MU » ^ &gw* • « • 81 

ipcojiaTttj spices « * » 97 

dcrKos, wineskin • • • 95 

d<rird£op.ai, to salute . « 69 

dcnreMXfJ.oSj salutation . . 82 

acrcr&pwv, farthing , • 82 

droiros, aw .... 66 
avf-dv©, to increase . .85 

a-urds, himself .... 37 

.d4>ti)}iL, to give up, forgive 88 

d'xpt-» *XP iS » w ^ 7 (P* I0 5) 8 5 

pa0vs» d?# . . . . • 29 

PairrCI®, to baptize . . 69 

pdirrwji.a, baptism . . 82 

jSacriXeiaj, kingdom . . 18 

pacriX€vs s king .... 22 

PacriXcvftj, to reign . . . 56 

PacrCXio-cra, ^mw . . . 73 

PcXtCov, better . . . . 30 

§(o$ f life ....... 26 

pXlir% to .?<?£ ... , 63 

po&m, to cry aloud , . . 79 

[SpaBelov, prize * . . . 66 

Pu8t|of*,CH # to ««£ ... 69 

ydXa, milk ..... 22 

TaXiXsiCa, Galilee ... 63 

-yap, for . . . . « . 66 

-ycXdca, & to,2^& . . . 79 
•yevid, generation . • .73 

■ycvos, kindred, race . . 22 

•yfj, aw/£, /a^ .... 26 

•yivofMii-, to become , to fc . 7 2 
yivwric»i to £#??& . . " » ' "' B6 



See Vocabulary hUexia ~ 1\i to Ust pctoe 



ri6 



VOCABULARY 



"yXwo-crci, tongue 
•yv«o-is, knowledge 
YVwottos, known 
•yovv, knee . . 
Ypafj.fj.aj letter . 
■ypap.jj.aT€vs, scribe 

"ypa«M» writing . 
•ypa^ai, Scriptures 
■ypd«f>©, to K;n'/« 
YuW|, woman . 
Y»vCa,, corner . 



SaCfJiov, demon . 
8dicpt>, tor . . 
SavcwrT^js, creditor 
84, £#/, <z^<f 
8€i, zV w needful 
ScCkvvjai,, to j/5<?w 
Scktos, acceptable 
Ss'vopov, /r^. . 
Scftds, n^/ (liand) 
8€crirdTi]s, master 
Sex ^ - 1 ) to receive 
SrjXoco, to /ko^i manifest 
Srjvdpiov, denarius , 
SiaKOve'co, to jgrzv . . 
SiacreCti), ^m# w&fc violence 
SicltC, wherefore 
StSdcTKaXos, teacher 
StSdo-Kw, to /a&£ . 

SlStofil, to ^M7* . . 

SCkcuos, /**j/ . . 
Suecuocrvvri, righteousnes. 
8uccudci>, to justify . 
8ixa£u(j.a, ordinance 
8Cktv©v, net . ■ , , 



PAGE 
17 
26 
92 
22 
26 
82 
17 
17 
63 
23 

73 



92 

26 
41 
41 
81 
94 

33 
92 

41 

56 
66 

76 

73 
81 

81 
56 
26 

65 

88 

3i 
18 

85 
56 

35 



Silked; to follow . , 
SqkIco, to thinkf appear* 
8okos, &•#*« .... 
Wi&t glory. . . , . 
So£d£a>, to gl° r tfy • • 
SovXetw, to j^rz/tf , . 
SotiXoSj bondman, servant 
Swaps, power 
§&pov,gift , 



dp&ta, to 



. of Xryw 



idv,*y: . . 

idea, to ^/to^y 
£yctp«», to yaw «/ 
£8vos, nation 
el, */ . . . 
€t8ov, 2 aor. of 

w* . . 
cfSos, /?>-#* , 
ctirov, 2 aor, act 

to jay . 
flp^vt], peace 
els, to, ##/<? . 
Ik, If, /wot, #«/ 0/*, 
lKaTovrdpxi]Sj a centurion 

litfidXXc*, to ajj/ $#/ . 

€K€f, /^<?r<f . . . •-... 
iKiiyos, that , . . . 
Itcir€ipd|«, /&£ to the test 
ckvopcfofiat, to go out, 

proceed . . . 
gKcrraaris, amazement 
IktcXIw, to complete 
iXatov, oil . . , 
IXdcrsrtav, /m . 
IXax^ros, /«w/ 
IXflaj , A? to compassion on § 1 



PAGt 

66 
81 
20 

18 

69 

.56 

26 

56 
■'..20 

66 

79 

.72 

24 
69 

96 
26 

96 

56 
20 
20 
66 
72 
41 
38 
97 

69 

69 

81 

63 
30 
30 



See Vocabulary hUexla ~ 1\i to Ust p«ae 



GREEK-ENGLISH 



117 



PAGE 

IXeos, mercy. . , , ., 25 

$k€vdepo$,free » ... 33 
IXtris, hope . . . ■ . .26 

l^pXerrca, A? look upon . . 63 

^w\i\Qm,lo fill up . . 79 

lfA«}»©P©S» terrified ... 82 
fv, 2% among . . , 18, 66 

IvavTiov, /;^/w-<? . . . . 56 

cvtcWojjicu, lo command » 72 

I vtoX 1 ^ , «>#i mandment , 1 8 

2v<&inov, in the sight of . 41 

4$aC<f>VT)$ f . suddenly , . 73 

*PPX°} Aai, j ^ come forth . 97 

lfot)cr£a, power, authority 41 

liraYpXjxa, promise . . 31 

liratvl©, to praise, commend 81 

iiravd-yc*, &?/#/ <?#/ (to sea) 79 
kir&vw, ato<? . . . .92 

l-n-epcordca, A? question . . 79 

iirC, &^?#, 0z><?r . . , . 56 

iiri,pX4ira>, &? /00/I #^<?» . 79 

iiryyivwo-KCi), &? know fully 86 

lirtOvpta, &> </«*>£ ... 97 

l-jrtXa3i.pdvop.a1, to seize , 92 

2iriOTdrr|S, master. . . 82 

lirmjj,d», to rebuke , , 79 

Ip^ov, wtfr/£ 20 

Ipt]p.0Sj desert . . . . 41 

(fpXO|MU, to go, come . . 96 

ipmra®, to ask,, beseech , 79 

lcr@£«, to eat .... 96 

Ifftrlpa, evening , . , 73 

iTcpos, other . . ... 40 

cro^d^m, to prepare . . 79 

Itoijaos, «a^ . .. . . 41 

%w%>year . .... , 35 



€^"y€V^S> ^^/<? . . . 

cvivs, straight . . 
eikatpos, m?// &>z<f«f , 
evXaP^s ? devout . . 
€vXo*y€«>, to praise . , 
e^pCcTK<d, to find . . 
ivsjjpa^vop.ai, £? &? ^/^ 
€vxapi.crT€«j to give thanks 
l«jj£<rr»]fu, fr s^ wvr 



fd«, A? //^ . . 
|t]Tc«, to seek . 
|vyos, jf<?^ . « 
|wf|, life . . , 
|covvvp.i, to gird 



•fjSi], «<w , . 
tjSov^j, pleasure. 
fjiw, to have come 

ir^tpa, day . . 



0dXacr<ra, was . 
fd^Pos, amazement 
Odvaros, a?m/i . 
0at>fj,d|», /<? wonder 
HidofMti;, /£» behold 
0eXf||i.aj «/#/ 
04X«, & zw// . 

@€OS» &?</ . . 

0€p£|®>, to reap . 
Ocapfo, fr behold 

0V^0-KG>, & flfe .. 

©p£f , hair . . 



PAGK 
41 
29 
28 

33 
41 

81 

m 

Si 

■81 

92 

65 
82 

79 
95 
73 
26 

94 

66 
26 
66 
18 

82 

73 
66 

69 

92 

31 
72 

20 

72 

81 

m 
23 



See Voca/>i/Ury hlhxld - 2x</ to Ust py 



o8 



VOCABULARY 



8pdvo§, throne » . 
Ov^drqp, daughter , 
0vp« } ^r , . . 
ftwce, to slay . . - . 



PAGE 
92 

26 

66 



tdo|iiH, to heal . . . 
tipevs, priest . _ . . 
Ccpdv, taH^fc (building) 
*Iij<rofis,y3sj«J . .' • 
LKavds, sufficient . . 
iXdorKOfiias,, to be merciful 
i'Xcws, merciful > . . 
lp.ds, /^^^ .... 
ipdrbov, garment . . 

*Iot?Satos,y<?w . . * 
t<rn)iu, to place, stand 
io-x^p^S, strong . . 

tX^vS, 7&# . • • • 

gaBaipfo, ^ /«& fi&w# 
Ka®c£pC|a>, to cleanse , 
Ka0€|^s, /« order . . 
KaC, a«</, also, even 
k<uv6s, ww .... 
Kaipos, season, opportunity 4 1 

31 

30 
81 

30 

63 
26 

66 



KaicCa, malice 
icatcos, evil . . « 
icaXlw, /<? invite 
K&Xfi%fair . . . 
icaXfarw, to cover , 
icttpSCttj heart • » » t 
Ktoptros, fruit . . . . 
KftTtl, against, according 
to ..... 41. S^ 



79 
24 

41 

23 
S 6 

to 86 
27 
56 
63 
63 
41 

88 

97 
■81 

22 



96 

69 
82 
41 

33 



FAGB 

KaraKpiv®, to condemn . 72 
Kar&kvpx, inn, lodging 41 

K*Tap6.o)ULi t to curse . . 81 
Kai>xdo|tai, to boast . 
kcacijo), A? command . 
Klpas, ^tfr» .... 
K€«i>aX^j /iw^ . . . 
tct|iros, garden . . . 
tc^pvf, £ira£/ . • • 
icfip^crcrcii, to proclaim, 73 



79 
66 

22 
73 

73 
22 



81 

56 

73 
56 
81 
66 
72 

73 



tcXdca, A? break . • « 

icXtt£©>, to lament . . 

KXdsr|xa, fragment . . 

kXsCcdj & shut . . • 
KXT]povopia>, to inherit 

kX^cfis, calling, , . 

tcXCvw, A? decline . . 

KOKKOS, £r<W& . • » 

kotttg), to atf ; mid. , bewail 63 
scocrpica, to adorn, furnish 81 
Koa-p.os» M* world . . .73 
ko<|>iyos, basket . . . . 73 
KpdcrireSoF, &w«/, /«»£» 63 
Kp'aTai6tt, to make strong 85 
K^wvim, to take hold of . 81 
KpCp.a., judgment 
KpCvov, lily . . 
tcpfva, to judge . 
icpCo-ts, judgment 
apiriis, judge . 
Kpotfa, to £#0f£ 
Kpwrds, secret . ' 
tcpviTTW, to conceal 
tcrdofj.ai, to acquire 
kt{}|m&, possession 
tcvpwiSi lord . . 



63 
31 
7i 
26 

18 

66 

73 
63 
79 
26 

26 



£00 VocakUry hllvxla - W to Ust p^a^ 



GREMA-ENGL1SB 



119 



mw f dog 



XclXI&>, to speak , 
Xa^pavw, to take, receive 58 
XafAirds, torch . 
XaTpevw, to worshi 
\£ya, to say . . 
XeiircOj to leave . 
"himv, lion . . 
Xfjpos, idle talk 
XlOos, stone . . 
XCjav^, lake . . 
Xo^ikos, rational 
Xo-yos, word 
\vyyo% lamp . 
Xwa, to loose . . 

jj-cucapios, blessed 
p,at€paVj far . 
juucpoOcv, afar off 
fmicpos, /tfTfg* . 
p,av0dvea, learn, 
p,dpru§, witness 
jxaxatpa, sword 
p,€^ dX»s, greatly 
pl-ya.% great 

[xe'Xcs, member, limb 
pipQSi pari . . 
jfc4o"os } middle » 
p&rroSifuH . » 
'jjtfTd, w#£, .a/?w 
p,€Tavolw, ft? r*^wf 
uifrdvoia, change of mind t 
repentance , » . 



PAGE 

23 



to 



81 

63 
22 

79 
66 

58 
24 

73 
26 

92 

33 

20 

63 
So 

56 
66 

92 

33 
69 

23 

63 

73 

28 

33 

73 
25 

26 

92 

35 
41 

.81 
97 



PAGE 

fju-^i, not, lest. , . , 4*> 79 

p^ScCs, «0 0?« .... 69 
p,fjv, month ..... 26 
ji^Ttip, mother .... 26 
|i£yvv|i.t, /<? «?Mf . • • 94 
p.tKpos, /?#/5 . • • • - 3° 
p,i|i,^crico|i,ai 5 or p,vdop,cu, 

to remember . . 79s $& 
iticreto, ft? hate . . • 
{iv1||ia, memorial, tomb . 73 
p,Vr|JJ.€40V, ftwz$ ...» 92 
p.Frj|i.©v€iJ6>, to remember . $6 
jaovov, only . . . . • • 5^ 
jaostxos, calf . . . . ■ 06 
[xvpov, ointment . . . 63 

jivorr^pioVj'^ytf^O' • * 9 2 
uwspaCvw, ft? become tasteless 73 
{Awpos, foolish . . • • 33 

vaos, temple (sanctuary) . 97 
veavtas, young man . . 18 
V€icp<5s, tftftwf. . • • * 79 
vlos, ««f • • • • • ■ 3° 
vec^IXt], £ftw*/ . . . . 26 
v^mos, infant^ infantine 63 
v6jj.os, /iiw .... •■-. 20 
votos, ,f0«ft% wi • ■ . • 73 
vov% mind . . . .^ . 25 

vvv, ww 79 

HI, night .... .22 



|t|po Sj ^7 



■» .. « *. 



8Si, IfSc, to8€ 3 //mi 
086s, w#j . . . 
680 {% ft*?ftl . . . 



. . ■ 41 

. .■ 3^ 

. .. ■ 2C 

. , 22 



See VocakUry hUexit - 2x1 to Ust page 



1 2D 



VOCABULARY 



oifcCa, house 


17 


oIkovojaos, steward . . 


82 


oTkos, house. . . . . 


26 


oiKTipjJicov, compassionate 


' 73 


otvos, wine . . . . . 


95 


otos, such as ... . 


39 


6Xfyos, little, few . . . 


69 


6Xfyov, a little way . . 


79 


6[AOl6ti>, /{7 /l^« . . . 


85 


6}i.ot»s, likewise . . • 


82 


oVopa, «a^ . . , . 


25 


frirov, where, whither . . 


97 


6irr6fi.cu., see opdw . . . 


96 


opdw, to see 


96 


opy^j anger 


69 


dpetvos, mountainous . 


56 


opttw, /# determine . , 


69 


fipvis, &V^ . . . 


26 


6pos, mountain . . . . 


. 25 


Actios, yfo/jj/ • • • * ■ 


• 33 


Scros, as much . 


- 39 


oVtis, -fjris, 8 ti, whoever. 




whatever . . . . 


■ 39 


6<r<f>v$, M* /<?mj -■ . 


. 95 


8to,v, whensoever , . 


. 66 


8t€, w#m .... 


. 66 


8ti, />&#/, because . . 


. 69 


OV, OVK, OVXj #** • 2C 


>> 105 


ovai, ww / . . . . 


• 79 


ovSciS} no one . 


• 34 


ostein, no longer . 


• 79 


o^pdvios, heavenly , . 


• 73 


ovpavos, heaven , . 


. 20 


©Ds, «ar . . « v 


. 22 


0§TOS, /Atf .... 


. 33 


©$X^> no $1 • • * » 


.69 



See Voc4,/>i/Ury hUexla, 



PAGE 

6<j>€Ouo, /* 0W* . « « . 73 

6<j>0aXjji6$, *ry» .... 20 

#xXos, multitude ... 35 

6x|/wvca, rations , wages . 82 

TTcuSdpiov, /#</ . . . . 35 

iraiStov, a little child . . 66 

irats, child 26 

irapd, beside, with . . 35, 92 

irapapoXri, parable . . 66 
irapcucaXca, to exhort, 

comfort . . . . . 81 
TrapaKoXov0€co, to follow 

closely 82 

irap^lvos, virgin ... 35 

iras, all . . . * . 28 

ird<rxa, Passover . . . 25 

7rdcrx», to suffer . . . 68 
iraxew, to tread down . .85 

irar^p, father . . . . 24 

ircCiw, ^ periuade . . . 59 
ir&irotia, to /rwtf . . -59 

ireivdw, & hunger . . . 79 

irk^.troi, to send , : . . 63 

ir€VT]S, /w • • ■ • • 33 

•xrepC, about . .... 5^ 

ir€pt|»vvvp,t, to gird about 95 

irepwrewlw, A? wtf/>& . . 82 

irepurarevw, &> remain over 73 
irfpurcr&repos, wm? a^«- 

</#ȣ . . . . . 63 

irfpiTop.^, circumcision . 79 

IIlTpos, Peter . . . . 63 

irfj^vwiu, to fierce . . . 94 

•irnrpdo-KCD, to sell . . . 86 

t&a"Tm<a 9 to believe . . . 56 

2\(/ to Ust pctoe 



GREEK-ENGLISH 



121 



irCorts, faith . . . 
trwr-ros, faithful . . 
irXavd®, to lead astray 
ttX!|00s, multitude. . 
irX^ica, £#j£// , . » 
irX^v, except^ but , . 
irX^p?|s, j%// . . . 
irXt|p6fe>, to fill, t$ fulfil 
irXot©v, a ship . . . 
irXov<rto$, rich . ' . 
wvcDjao,, spirit . " . 
irFcujAttTi-Kos, spiritual 
irotio), ite #m£tf . . 
irotfA^v, « shepherd 
irolos, of what sort 
iroXis, a city . . . 
iroXt.T€\j0{i.at., to live as a 

citizen .... 
ir©XCn|S, citizen 
iroXvs, much ♦ . . 
nwrjpos, evil . 



irop€voji,ai», /<? go, journey 56 



irocros, how great . . 
iroTafios, w^ . . . 
irov, where ? . , . 
trovs, ,/W .... 
irpa/ypa, <&^ . . 
wpaos, and irpavs, meek 
irpdcrerca, /<? do , . . 
wpo, before ... 
irpoa.ipcop.ai, to purpose 
trpoSj £?, towards . . 
frpoerSoKacUj &? expect . 
irp©o"€vx©|J.ai,, ite />r*zy . 

irpoo*€x®, ^ ^* w h ee d 
irpocrKwIwj /0 worship 



PAGB 

26 



29 

79 

73 
69 
S 6 

3i 
85 
69 

33 

24 

31 

82 

22 
40 
22 

56 
26 
28 
56 



40 
26 
66 
22 

25 
33 
58 
69 
96 
63 
97 
66 

82 
82 



irpoVcairov, yfotf, counts 

nance . . . 
irp9T€pos, former . 
irpoTpex w > ^ r2#? * before 
irpo^rqs, prophet 
irp&T©s, yfrj - / . . 
<n-p»T0y, first 
irr©l©p,ai, to scare , 
irvp,fire .... 
irupcTos, fever , 
ircoXlw, to sell . . 

p^Yvvfii, to rend . 
pi)fjt.a, word, saying 
p^Taip, orator . . 
pt|a, mtf . . . 
pvop.atj to deliver . 
pcovvvju, /<? strengthen 
(Ippwcro, farewell) 



«rdppaTOv, sabbath 
a-akivw, to shake . 
o-ap^ } fiesh . . . 
crPevvufu, &? extinguish 
crt}p,€£©v, j-zjfw . , 
crCvairs., mustard . 
criTewrds, fatted 
<TKav8cxXi|ca, &> «j5ms^ A? 
stumble . 

0"K€VOS, ZW.T<?/ . , 

irKOiros, war^ . , 

crjcoTia, darkness , 

a-o^la, wisdom , . 

o"o<b6s- wise . , , 

virdpm, to sow , , 

cnrlppa, j«aT . , 



PAGB 

56 
31 
97 
18 

31 
69 
82 

69 
92 
82 

94 
22 

22 
92 
56 
94 
95 

25 
56 
79 
94 
73 
73 
66 



69 
63 
66 

3i 
18 

27 

73 

3i 



122 



VOCABULARY 



PAGE 

cnrovS^, haste , . . . $6 

crTavpow, to crucify . . 85 

crrdx^s, ear of corn . , 97 

arrets, narrow .... 33 

crrfjios, breast . . . . . ■ 63 

(tt^kw, to standfast . . 92 

cnroX^, robe . . . . . . 82 

<rn£fj.a, mouth .... 63 

o-TpaTid, &r»y, ^&f/ . . 73 

0"Tpa*n<&T?|$j soldier . , 26 

<rrp!cf>G>, &> tar« . . .. 59 

trrpoTjOC©^, sparrow . . 82 

crrp»VFV|u, /^ strew ... . 94 

0-vKo4>avT€«, A? accuse 

falsely . . . . . 82 

cnup.(f*i©via, music . . . 56 

<H>v, w&fc . . . . . 18 

a-wo/yca, to bring together 66 
crwa-ywY^, synagogue, , 35 
<rwavT&«, to meet ... 79 
crvv€T(Ss, intelligent^ pru- 
dent . . . . . . 63 

ct^jvIx^i -©ahm, to be hard 

pressed ..... 82 

cr<©!<d, A? ^<2^ . . . .68 

0-m^.a, body ...... 25 

iwr^p, saviour. . ... . 25 

<ram|p£a, deliverance^ sal- 
vation 73 

crc&«j»p<ay, sober-minded . 29 

mircivcSei., <f# humble , . 85 
Tapd<nra», /# agitate^ 

trouble . ... . 66 

Tdcrcr©, &> set in order . 66 

r&xw» »w* swiftly . . 97 



PAGB 

TO-X^Ss jw^?. . . » . 3° 

TlKVOV, f£*£/ . . . . 20 

rikeiQSiperfecti full-grown 3 1 

TfXetiTaw, &> ^2> . . . 79 

tcXIw, f<? accomplish . . 82 

tIXoSj end ... . . 26 

T€Tpapxi]S, tetrarch . . 73 

«r£0i]jj«,, to place . .. . . 88 

t£XX©», A? //&££ .... 97 

t£|j,i0s, precious .. . . ■ . ■ 3 1 

TOtOVTOS, J^^ • • • ■« ■ 3^ 

ToX{i.d«d, Ai «^r<? . . . 79 

too-ovtos, so great ... 3^ 

Tdre, then . . . . . . 66 

Tp4«j*a>, to nourish ... 59 

Tplx®> 'A* ^ # • - » * 96 

rpo^,j^^ . . . . . 31 

Tvirra), to smite ... 63 

Tv<f>Xds, blind . . . . 69 



$Bmp, water , . 
•ulos, son . . . 
liiraKO^, obedience 

•uirdpx«j A? fo • 
-yirlp, on behalf of 
iir^KOOs, obedient 
vird, £j>, under * 

^iroSlxoP'G.i, /«? receive 

a guest . . , 
farlStiiia, sandal , . 
vir0§i©y^, endurance 
vTro&rpifyGi, to return 
$i|ftcrr0$» highest . 
i^deu, to exalt . . 



. 22 

. 20 

. 69 

. 66 

. 69 

. 33 
66,85 

. 95 



as 



73 

56 

79 

63 

3i 

.85 



See VocakUry hUexia " W to Ust p&oe 



GREEK-ENGLISH 



123 



i'AGB 

73 
73 
97 
96 
66 
92 

73 

82 

66 



(fsaivo^ca, &? appear . . 
^ewepos, manifest . . • 
$api<rato$, Pharisee . . 
<|>lp<o, &? &f#r . . , . 
4»€v"yci», &>j<?<?£ .... 
<jn|p,£, &> «y ..... 
«|»0dv#, & <?0£W beforehand 
4hX&*>, ^ /#©£ .... 
<f>tXos, friend .... 
^>opos,/^r ..... 26 
<fip^v, intellect . , . 

4»pOV€Cs) } fo £feV^i 

<jspovi{J.o$, prudent . 
^povt^s, prudently . 
^vXaidi, watch . . . 

<f>cov^, ZWVtf . ... 

<|»»s, light ..... 22 

$«<rT^p, luminary . . 26 



PAGB 



26 

82 

33 
82 

35 
82 

79 



Xcu'ptt, jto rejoice 



73 



XaXda), & /<?/ dww#* (as 

nets) 79 

%apa,joy 4 1 

Xaptgoiuu, to bestow freely 69 

X<ipi.s, .grace ', favour . . 2^ 

X€ip, hand . . . . • 4* 

Xnp ft » widow . . . • 35 

XitcSv, inner garment * . 73 

Xopos, dfcftt*, w#£ singing 56 

XopT&|o|j.cH, A? £<? satisfied 79 

XpcCa, iw«f . . . . « 35 

Xp€w<|>€iXlrr|s, debtor . . 4 1 
Xpurrrfs, Christ 
Xpv«r€os, golden 
X^pa, country . 



^r^XUcdSj natural 



eSSi, ^f£ . . . 
®S or ©crcC, a^itfl 



20 
27 
18 



33 
26 

31 



35 

35 



Additional Words, for 

tarag, adv., once for all {^. 104) 
8it]<Fi.$, -ews, ^, supplication 
SIojmu, I aor., kUi\B>qv % to 

beseech 
St«0Tftc% -17s, 17? covenant 
Sapa, -a-TO?, t6, building, roof 
iicxvyu), to pour out 
Koivwvfa, -as, ^fellowship 

^v€ta, -as, 4 remembrance 



Reading Lesson, p. 101. 

6pia,-ci»r, rt£, borders 

irdvTO«, adv., always 

irlTpa, -as, 1?, mv§ 

TrXtfpG^a, -a-ros, rd, fulness 

trXvv®, fut. -(2, ^ zwijA 

iroT^piov, -oy, r6, r^ 

<rw£<rrT)|u (perl), to stand to 
geiker, consist 

Tftfueiov, "ov, t6, secret 'cham- 
ber 



See Vocabulary hUexli ~ 2iU to Ust p<*oe 



124 



VOCABULARY 



GENERAL YOCABULARY, IL 
English-Greek: to the Exercises, 

For forms of words, and other explanations, see the pages of 
the book, as noted below. Also, for Prepositions, see pp. 99, 
100. 

Parts of the Verb to be, and the principal Pronouns* are here 

omitted. 



PAGB 

about (adv.), w$, wvd, . 35 
about, to be, fiiXkca . .73 

above (prep.), virip (ace.) 84 

accomplish, to, reXe'w . . 82 

according to, icard (ace). 56 

against, mrd (gen.) . . 41 

age, alibv . . . . . , 24 

all, ras ...... 28 

alone (adv.), fibvov, . . 56 

also, Kai ...... 41 

always, del ..... 41 

Andrew, 'Avdpiaf . , , 18 

angel, AyyeXos .... 26 

another, HXkos, 40 ; irepos 40 

Apollos, 'AwoXXcis. . . 23 

apostle, drSaroXos , » . 66 

ask, to, iptoT&oi, alriia 79, 92 

authority, ij-ovtrta ... 41 



bear, to, <pip® • • 
become, to, ytvoptai 
behoveth, it, Bet . 
believe, to, mared® 
beloved, dyawyrtis . 



96 
72 
81 

63 



PAGE 



bestow freely, to, %api^oixm 69 

bless, to, ctiXayiw . . . 81 . 

bring together, to, <rvvdyw 66 

brother, dBe\<p6s ... 20 

call, to, KaXiw . . . . 81 

Cephas, ~Ki}<f>a$, , . , iS 

certain, a, rts . . , . 16 

child, riavov 20 

Christ, the, Xpiffrds, 6 . 20 

city, w6\l§ 24 

come to pass, to, ylvo/xcu 72 

commandment, ivroXtf , 18 

country, %£&pa . . . . 18 

crucify, to, <rravp6(a . . 85 

cry aloud, to, f$odb) . . 79 



darkness, cr/corla , 

David, AafilB , . 

day, ^fjJpa . , . 

death, Bdvaros . . 
debtor, xpew^eMr^t 
deceit, dwdTiq . 

deed, w pay pa . . 



31 

92 

18 
66 
41 

31 

2^ 



S00 Vocabulary hUexia ~ Z\J, to last me 



ENGLISH- GREEK 



125 



PAGE 

demon, datpw . ... 92 
desert, SpTjfJLos ...» 41 
destroy, to, dir6\\vpi,i , . 94 
disciple, fia0y]Trj$ ... 18 
do, to, iroiiwj frpdtra-di} . 66, 82 




*arth, yrj . . . 
eleven, £v8eKa . 
Elijah, 'HXks . 
even, icai, . . 
excepting, 7rX7ji> 
eye, 6<p0aXfJi.&s . 



fair, raX6s . . . . . 30 

faith, wlsTTis ..... 26 

farewell, %cupe, xafyere . 73 
father, irar^p .... 
favour, x<£p*s .... 
fifty, irevT'fJK.ovTa ... 
fill, to, irX^0w, irfirXiy/u, 

69 ; 5rX^/>6o? . 
find, to, evpluKta , , , 
finish, to, reXiw. 

first, irpQTos ..... 33 

five, we^re ..... 33 

foot, iroi5s ..... 22 

for (conj.), 7<% 66 ; fin . 69 

forgive, to, a<plr)fM ... 88 

flee, to, ipetyta , ... 66 

foolish, fuap6s .... 33 

from, awo (gen.) . . 18, 20 

from (out of) e/c, <?£ (gen.) 20 

fulfil, to, w\7jp6w ... 85 

full, tXt$/wjs ..... 31 

full-grown,' T^Xetoi . , . - 31 



24 

25 

35 

85 
86 

82 



Galilee, Tdkikala . . 
Gennesaret, Tevvyjaapir 
gift, 8(apov . . 
give, to, BLS&fJLL . 
glorify, to, doi-dfa 
glory, 56|a . . 
glory, to, /cai/%do/ia 
go, to, Tropetioficu 
God, 6e6s . . 
Gospel, etiayyiXiov 
great, jxiyas . . 
greater, fidfav . 

hand, x^P • • 
happy, pajcdpios 
have, to, l%t** 
hear, to, clko^oj . 
heaven, g-upav6s 
herald, *e^pi/| . 
Herod, 'Hpt^j 
hide, to, Kp^irrw 
holy, $*ytos . . 
honour, to, rt^tdw 
hour, $pa . . 
house, oTkos, 26 ; ok(a 

if, el, 69 ; &h> . . 

infant, vifjinos . , 

Isaiah, 'Htrafcu . . 

Israel, 'I<rpa^X . . 



FAGS 

63 

92 

20 
88 
69 
18 

79 
56 
20 
41 

28 

■30 

41 

56 

6 S 

56 
20 

24 
18 

63 
27 

76 

35 
17 

66 

3i 

18 

31 



Jerusalem, 'lepwadX'fjfi or 

'lepovfikvpLO. . . . 25 
Jesus, 'I^troOs . , , .23 
Jew, 'IoySatof . , . . 41 
John, 'liadpyifs . ■ , , . 31 



£00 VocakUry hUe\<t<t ~ ^d to Ust p*oe 



-126 



VOCABULARY 



Jonas, Jonah, 'twas 
joy, xapcC . . , 
judge, Kpirifjs . , 
judge, to, Kpivm 

Jupiter, Zeus, Ze?5s 
justify, to, BiKaib® . 



kill, to, awoKreivta . . . 72 

king, pacrihefo .... 22 

kingdom, fia<riXeh ... 18 

knock, to, KpoiLxa . . . 66 
know, to, yw(h<?KQ>, $6 
(intellectual appre 

hension) oWa, elBivai 96 



PAGB 

18, 79 

41 

18 
71 

23 
85 



law, vdfws . . v 
lay down, to, tIOtj^i 
Lazarus, Aafapos . 
learn, to, fiavddvw . 
least, eXa%i£rros . . 
likewise, dfioim 
live, to, gdca . . , 
look, to, j8A<?7rw 
look upon, to, iwifiXiwta 
Lord, K&pios . 
lose, to, air6Xkvfju . 
Lot, Adbr, . . . 
love, to, 0t\ew 
love (subst), ay&iTT} 
love, to, Ayairdw . 

malice, fcatcla . . 
man, &vdp^)wo$ i 20; d^/> 
many, iroWol . , 
Mary, Mapid/j, . . 
master, decrwoTrjs . 



20 
88 

63 
69 

30 
82 

79 
63 

79 
26 

94 
56 

82 
82 

79 

31 

23 

28 
25 

£6 



master, £iri(rr<£rq$ . . 
meek, Tpam and irpa0§ 
midst, the, fiiaov . 
mine, ^6s . , , » 
month, /«Ji» .... 
mouth, ffr6fj,a . . , 
Moses, Mwcr^jor Mwi/V?) 
mother, ^r^p . . . 
mountain, 6pos . . . 
multitude, 5xXos . , 
mysteryj fAvcrr^piop 



name, ftvofia,, . , , 
nation, £6vo$ .... 
night, i>i5f .... 

noble, €vyevif}$ . . , 
none, oudek, j&Tjhls 
not, od, oik, /£>? . . .41 
nothing, ovdir, /«?5eV . 

obedience, fiiraiwif} . . 
obedient, iiir^Koos . 
obey, to, irddofxm . . 
on behalf of, i^p (gen. 

one, els 

only, iibvov .... 
open, to, dvoiyw . , 
opportunity, icaipds 
out of, £k, 41- . . t 
over, lire ...» „ 



parable, irapafHokfi , . 
peace, el/^?; . , r 
permit, to, &» . , . 
persuade, to, weld 00 , 
Peter, Uirpos , . . 
power, BijpafAis, 56; ij-Qwla 41 



PAGE 
82 

33 
92 

37 

35- 
63 
25 
26 

25 
35 

92 

25 
24 
22 
29 

34 
105 

69 

69 

33 
69 
69 

34 

56 

66 
41 
20 

56 

66 

56 

79 
69 
63 



S00 Voc<st/>i/Ury hUexia ~ iW to last paoe 



ENGLISH- GREER 



127 



PAGE 

pray, to, wpocre^xofiai , , 66 

preach, to, Ki}pti<rffb) , . 73 

priest, Upeus 24 

prophet, irpQ<piiTf}*s . . . 18 
prudent, <fcp6vip(<o$ . , .33 

pure, ayvos . , , » , 31 

ready, irotfws .... 41 

reap, to, Beplfta , , , 72 

rebuke, to, iiriTtfidia . . 79 
receive, to, \afifidvu, 58, 

63 ; dexojmi , . . 66 

rejoice, to, xaipw ... 73 
remember, to, /MfjLvrjtTKQ- 

{jlcu, 86 ; fMvdofjLai . . 74 

rend, to, ^yvvpu ... 94 

repent, to, pLeravoiw . , 81 

return, to, titrocrTpifiw . 63 

reveal, diroKohvirrio . . 63 

rich, wKovcrios .... 33 

righteous, Blmios . , . 31 

righteousness, ducaioavvT} 18 

Sabbath, <rd§§afov or «ra 35 

save, to, <rc6|*w .... 68 

Scriptures, ypa<pal . . . 31 

see, to, opda), @\iw(a , 63, 96 

seek, to, f^rew . . . , 95 

self, avrds . . . , . 37 

send, to, iriftirw ... 63 

servant, SouXosr .... 26 

serve, to, Soi/Xeuca , . , 56 

set, to, tvrripLi * . * * 88 

seven, iwrd ..... 33 

seventh, ^/38o/xos . » . 33 

shake, to, eraXey&j . , , 56 



FAGS 

shepherd, troip^v . » . 22 
show, to, &?X<5w. . , ■ .,■ 76 

sign, <Tf}pL€?op . » , ,73 
Simeon, "2vp,edv » . 41 

Simon, ^Ifuav ...» 14 
sixth, &cros . . . . . . 33 

Solomon, Hohofiibv . .31 
son, i46t ...... 20 

some (pi.), Tives . . . 16 
sow, to, (Twelpm , . , . 73 
speak, X^yw, . . . 66, 81 
speak, to, XaXew, Xe^w . 66 
spirit, wvedfia .... 24 

stand, to, Xotihu. . . . '88 

stand near, to c^icTT?|/x,£(2 aor, ) 92 
stumble, cause to, to, 

<TKav8a\ifa . ... 69 

suffer, to, ir&<rx<b} . . . 6$ 
synagogue, <rvvay(ay^ , , 35 

take, to, Xapfidvo* . . . 63 

take away, to, &<pcupe(*j . 96 

take up, to, atpu ... 72 

teach, to, 8<,dd<JK(d ... 65 
teacher, 8idd<rtcakos . .26 

temple, le/>oV, 41 ; pao's . 97 

ten, Bha ...... 33 

than, ij ...... 32 

that (conj.), Bn . , , 69 

that (pron.), itcewos . . 38 

Thessalonic,a, QecraakoplKij 31 
thine, <r6s . . . . .38 

this, o0Tos 38 

three, rpm . . • . . 34 
to, unto, e/y, 20 ; lir/, 56 ; 



See Voc<st/>i/Ury Udexda ~ 3W to Ust p^oe 



128 



VOCABULARY 



trouble, to, rapda-cna 
true, dX^if^f. . . 
trust, to, 7riiroi,0a . 
truth, aktf$€ia . , 
turn, to, crTp€<p<A> . 
twelfth, B&fiitcaTOs . 
twelve, du)8etca . , 



unrighteousness, ddiicla 
upon, iwi. .... 



vineyard, dfnreXwv . 
virgin, irapdivos 
voice, tyavft. . , * 



way, 656s . . ... 
whatsoever, $o"to, 5n . 
when, Sre, 5ra*> 
whensoever, 'orav . 
wherefore (interrog.). Start 97 



PAGB 

66 
29 
68 
41 

59 
33 
33 

3i 

56 

97 
35 
79 

20 

39 
66 

66 



PAGE 



who, 8i (rel.), 39; t&; 

(interrog.) . 
wife, yvvfi , . 
will, to, 0e\(a , 
wine-skin, dank 
wisdom, <ro(p[a . 
wise, <ro(f>6$ . . 
with, avv (dat.), fieri 

(gen.) . . 
with, irapd . . 
witness, pAprvs . 
woman, yvvfi 
word, \6yo$i 20 ; ^%*a 
world, the, Ko<rfios 
worthy, &%io$ 
wrath, dpyfi , . 
write, to, ypd<pw 
writing, yp&tptf « 



year, Ires 
yoke, pjyfe • 



39 
23 

72 

95 
18 

27 



41 

35> 92 
23 

23 

22 

73 

3* 
■69 

63 
17 

35 
73 



ADDENDA. 



&Xt]0€ia, truth , • * . 4 1 

apx^pCicXivos, r«/<?r 0/* & 

feast ..... 98 

linciK^s, £»»//*, jww^ . 86 

e€|i£Xios, foundation . . 9 2 

icarapdofuu, &> «***« . . 81 

icXac*, to break s . . 81 



T^iros, place ..... 42 
^op€0fj.ai, to fear , . .82 

%a, tef, . ' . . . . 35 
as, ws, /ca04£s . . . 84, 105 
pass away, to, irapipxop<cu 98 
wicked, TrovrjpSs 
say, to, Xiyw . • » ,66 



See Vocabulary Udexda ~ 2xd U Ust pane 



Butler & Tanner, The Sdwood Printing Works, Frome, and London. 



A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO 

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK 

BY 

SAMUEL G. GREEN, B.A., D.D. 



KEY 



TO THE EXERCISES 



BY 



SAMUEL W. GREEN, M.A. 

PROFESSOR OF NEW TESTAMENT EXEGESIS 
REGENT'S PARK COLLEGE, LONDON 



Revised Edition 



THE RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETY 

4 BOUVERIE STREET AND 65 ST. PAUL'S CHURCHYARD 

I912 



OXFORD: HORACE HART 
PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY 



PREFACE 



■♦♦" 



This Key has been prepared, partly for the 
convenience of teachers, but chiefly for the 
assistance of students who are obliged to work 
alone. The following suggestions are offered as 
to the manner in which it may be made most 
helpful. 

i. Let the student use it simply to cheek and 
correct work on which all possible pains and 
care have first been spent. 

2. Every mistake should be so well considered 
as to be made unlikely for the future, 

3. Difference from the rendering of the Key 
may not always mean actual error: in some 
minor matters, as choice of words, order, &c, 
divergence is often permissible. Let the student 
start with the presumption that there is a reason 
for the particular rendering given, and a little 
thought will generally enable him to decide 



4 PREFACE 

whether his own rendering is wrong, or inferior, 
or equally correct 

4. The notes should be very carefully studied, 

5. The references are to the Primer unless 
otherwise stated. The same author's Hand- 
book to the Grammar of the Greek Testament 
should be possessed where at all possible, and 
the references to it carefully made and under- 
stood. 

6. The Key may be used as a new set of 
Exercises, to which those in the Primer will 
serve as key. The best plan will be for the 
student first to correct his work, then, after an 
interval, retranslate his corrected exercise into 
its original form. 

7. Too much stress cannot be laid on the 
necessity of thoroughness. A Primer is not 
wide in its range, but if it be patiently worked 
through, with no sparing of time or trouble to 
make each step sure, the student will be rewarded 
by finding the way fairly open to him into the 
fascinating region of New Testament study. 

8. Some of the notes refer to errata which have 
been corrected in later editions of the Primer. 



KEY 



TO THE EXERCISES 



«#M^ 



xereise 11 (p. 13)* 

(l) Km it€ iyiviTQ f]fi€pa f 7rpocr€(f)&vri(rt rovs fjLadfjTas 

ai?rov* km cKXc^aptvos dw % avrmp Bmd€m } ovs km dwoarrokovg 
mpopm(T€ 3 *Eipmwa m km wvopcurc Herpop ml % Kvbpeav top 
iB'ihtpow avmv y ^IdicmfSop km $ Imdpm]P f $tkwnrop ml Bap0oXo~* 
fjmoVy Mqt0q2®p ml &mfiap $ Immfiop top tov *A\(fialov ml 
2ip*mpa top Kakovpgpop Zt}kmTr}P f lovdap ^IqkSjSqVj km *Iovdap 
$ Io*mpmTf)P $ os km iyhiTQ npofiorrjs* 

. (2) Ovk IBov wdpt€s ovToi tlariv of XaXdvi/re? FaXiXacoi | 

km ir&s 17/iei? aKovopgp £kq{ftos t§ ISia BiaXmTm fjpmp 
iv § iygpprjdijpgpf TldpBot* ml Mqdot km 'EXa/urai, km ol &aroi* 
Kovvrts TTjP MecroTrora/xiaz', *IovBamp re km ' KamraBoKiav f 



6 EXERCISE III 

U6vrov m\ rhv 'Aot'w, QpvyLav T€ ml Ua^vXlav, Atyvwrop 
K a\ rh fitpv rfc Afivrjs rr iS Karh Kvp^p, koL oi iwi^ovpris 
'Pco/iaTot, 'lovMoi re km TrpovfjkvTOi, K^res km "Apafieg, 
Slkovo^v \a\ovPT0P avrStv rats tj^repms yk&traus ra /xeya- 
Xeta rod &€Ov ; 



Exercise III (p. 19). 

Greek - English. 

1. The commandments. 2. The glory of the 
kingdoms. 3. The tongue of the disciple. 4. With 
righteousness. 5. In the days. 6. The young man 
was a disciple. 7- Jonah and Isaiah were prophets. 
8. From the country. 9. Righteousness 1 is the 2 
beginning of wisdom \ 

1 English idiom omits the article. In the Greek the force 
is i ' The righteousness (which any man possesses) is the begin- 
ning of the wisdom (which he possesses) ' ; not righteousness, 
wisdom in the abstract, but in some supposed concrete in- 
stance : a man's righteousness is the beginning of his wisdom. 

2 The predicate (complement) of the substantive verb gene- 
rally omits the article. (See next Exercise, note 1.) 



EXERCISE IV 



English - Greek, 

I, fxadrjTrjs icrrt. 2. fia0r}Tai i<rp,tv* 3, p.a&r)Tal rmv 
frpo<fir}T5>v elcrtp ev rfj x^P?« 4* a * fvrokai elcnv iv ducaio- 
vvvfl' 5* *l $ a(rt ^ € i a ecrra* iv 8o£j7. 6. «V rats' rjpepms 
'Hpmftov. 7. aw { H/)fi>o# ml rois KpiTais, 8. ea-rcu jSaer*- 
Xeia BiKawcrvvrjs. g. airo rrjs ivrokrjs y Itova. 10. eV rem 
ypacpms 'Haratov. II, 9 oro(j)ia ml q fiimioarvvi] ei&l Boga 1 
fjLaBrjTav. 

1 The predicate after the verb to be generally omits the 
article : it is this (and not the order of the words) which 
determines which is subject and which is predicate in doubt- 
ful cases, as $€os ?jv 6 Xoyos, The Word was God. (See p. 4a.) 



Exercise IV (p. 21). 

Greek - English, 

1. The eyes of the child. 2. He is a son of the 
kingdom. 3. In the way into the house. 4. The 
law of God \ 5. They are brothers. 6. The beam 
was in the eye. 7. Works of the law 2 . 8. Ye are 



8 EXERCISE V 

children of God \ 9. Out of heaven was the word. 
10. Righteousness is not in the law 2 . 

1 6 &€os, the God of revelation, ®e6s God, one who possesses 
the attributes of Deity. The former is the more common use. 
See Handbook, § 217. 

2 vS/jlos and 6 vofios may both be used of the law of Moses ; 
the former emphasizes its character as law, the latter its his- 
torical embodiment in the Pentateuch ; both may be expressed 
in English idiom by the law. 



English - Greek. 

I. to $2>pa rmv abtXfyvv. 2. abek&s earn t§ av6p«m<$. 
3. carat 1 Sdos eis ovpavov. 4. avdpmire, vlos u rod vop,ov. 
5, iv Tf vopf ml rots Trpo^rais. 6. iv rah ivroXais rov 

VOflOV. 7. €K TOV VOfXOV OVK €(TTM T} SlKCLlOaVVT). 8. oSof 

biKmoavvrjs daiv 6 Xdyos kol jJ cVtgX?}. 

* For the accent see Handbook, § no note. 



Exercise -V (p. 25). 

Greek -English. 



1. A certain man 1 was in the city. 2. The name 
of the woman is Mary. 3- The heralds of the 
nations 2 . 4. The words of the man were with 



EXERCISE VI 9 

grace. 5. Brethren 3 5 I am a disciple of the Saviour. 

6. There are certain shepherds in the country. 

7. Unto the king of the city. 8. We are members 
of the body of Christ. 9. Ye shall be witnesses of 
the words of God. 10. From the cities into the 
mountains. 

1 Or l a man. 1 2 Or ' of the Gentiles.' 

3 The avdpts simply adds weight to the address, and need 
not be translated. See Acts vii. 2, R.V. 

English - Greek. 

I. «V r§ vvktL 2. oi ^aanXels eteri iroipepes r&>v iBvmv. 
3* avdpes Koi yvvaaces Kal TtKva elal eV rah 7roXe<rt. 4. eaov- 
Tat iv rots Bpecri. 5. etr/xev viol 1 r9)S tjfiepas, ov rrjs vvktos. 
6. prjpara ovk eari irpaypara. 7. trvv rols irarpavi koi rats 
prjTpao-i 2 . 8. KtjpVKiS ml fidprvpes icr6jj,e0a rod \6yov. 

1 Better than riuva in this metaphorical sense 
8 Mother, mrrjp, is declined like irarrfp. 



Exercise VI (p. 32), 

Greek- English 

1. Unto all the saints. 2. In an honest 1 and good 
heart. 3. The will of God is good and perfect 



IO EXERCISE VI 

4. The judges were just. 5. Faithful is the word, 
and worthy of all acceptance. 6. He that is faithful 
in a-thing-which-is-least is faithful also in a-thing- 
which-is-much. 7. A slave is not greater than his 
master. 8. There is a natural body and there is 
a spiritual body. 9. He is worse than an unbeliever. 
10. It is less than all the seeds. 11. The very grea^ 2 
and precious promises. 12. The life is something 
more than food. 13. The disciples of Jesus were 
more than those of John. 

1 See Handbook, New Test. Synonyms, § 21 (p, 377). 

2 The superlative may express a high degree of the quality, 
without explicit comparison. See Handbook, § 324. 



English - Greek. 

I. rjv frXfjpTjs trio-Teas teal Tlvevparos 1 ' Ay iov. 2. aXtjdelt 
at ayiai ypcxpal kcu dyval. 3. 7roXXot 7rpo<pr)rai /cat avdpes 
BUaioi rjcrav iv rats r]p.€pais Trjs ftaarikuas rod 'itrpaijX, 4, S 
nhrjprjs 7rdo~rjs dfiiKias Kai dTrarrjs, 5, tfcrre 2 vrjmoi rfj kukIq 
Kal TeXctot rfj cro<pia. 6. ayia tjv z ra prjpara /cat ra wpay- 
ftara ra>v na&qr&v. J. 6 eXd^toroy iv rfj jSacrtXeta rmv 
ovpapoov r}p peiijav rov ^Imdvvov. 8. evyevearepot rj&av rmv 
iv &€cro-akovlKt]. g. KaXXtcrrds icrri ra>p vmv ra>v dpdpawaiv. 



EXERCISE VII II 

10. fj a-KOTia ?jv eVt waaav rfjv yfjv. II. 6 2o\o}xq>p %v cro$ft>- 
repos Kcti pctfav jravrmv rmv fSacriXewv. 

1 For omission of the article see Handbook, § 217 f. 
a See p. 87, 3 For singular see p. 42. 



Exercise VII (p. 35). 
Greek - English. 

1. There is need of one thing. 2. Judas, one of 
the twelve. 3. In one of the synagogues. 4. There 
is a lad here. 5. Two shall be in the field. 6. Three 
against two and two against three. 7. Three years 
and six months. 8. There are no more than five 
loaves and two fishes. 9. The twelve were with 
Jesus. 10. The number of names was about a 
hundred and twenty. 11. In the second or in the 
third watch of the night. 1 2. The net was full of great 
fishes, a hundred and fifty and three. 13. One day 
is with the Lord 1 as a thousand years, and a thousand 
years as one day. 14. And it was about the sixth 
hour. 15. She was a widow of about eighty-four 
years 2 . 16. Eighteen years. 

1 For omission of article see Handbook^ § 217 b. 

2 i. e. 84 years old. 



12 EXERCISE VII 



English - Greek. 



* A _ * > 



I. mnjp V p ermv wePTtjKOvra rpmv. 2. oi Mtiea faav iv 
r§ Taktkaia. 3. oi 1 8d>Be K d d<np $>pm rfjs fae'pas 2 ; 4. fy 
worcl & pa €kttj. 5, taovrm ywauns whr* ip fiia oMg. 6. 
rm tpMiup pqvL \ rfi fadeon^ rov W dV. 7. ,} ^ pa f, <?£- 
Mm vdPfara 4 Kvplov \ 8. rj pi? (or rg *rp<^) r&y cra(3- 
Qarw (or rou o-a$3droi/) 6 . 9. jreWe & ray d«a 7rap&W 
7 crai/ <f)pQmp.oi 7 Kal nepTe (fj<rap) papal. 

1 Or oi X h a form of the negative often used in questions. 

2 Lit. < of the day,' ( belonging to the day.' 

3 Or ra> /«p2 t§ l£5ojw§;. 
* Or ffa@pa.TOP. 

5 Or Kv/wV, < a sabbath to the Lord/ as Exod. xx. 10. 

€ The articles may be omitted. 

7 An < adjective of two terminations ' ; see p. 27. 



Exercise VII (p. 42). 
Greek - English. 

1. Thou shalt have joy and exultation. 2. His 
name is John. 3. There was no place for them in 
the inn. 4. There was a man in Jerusalem, whose 



name was Symeon, and this man was just and devout. 
5. Thou art the Christ the son of God. 6. Thou art 
the king of the Jews. 7. What is thy name ? 8. He 
who is not 1 with me is against me. 9. All things 
are ready. 10. Child, thou art always with me 5 and 
all that is mine is thine 2 , n. In those days John 
was in the wilderness of Judaea. 12. They are 
children 3 of God, since they are 4 children 3 of the 
resurrection. 13. And there was a man there, and 
his right hand was withered. 14. Of his kingdom 
there shall be no end. 15. And they were both just 
before God. 16. There were many widows in the 
days of Elias in Israel. 17. His word was with 
authority. 18. A certain creditor had two debtors. 
19. We are in a desert place. 20. Ye are witnesses 
of these things. 21. But your time is always 
ready. 

1 Lit. * the one not being ' : for wv see p. 87. 
3 Lit. ' all my things are thy things/ 
3 Lit. ' sons ' : see note to Exercise V. 
* Lit. l being/ 

English - Greek. 

I, to renva jjlov wolvtotc [xer ejjiov. 2, to, ifia trd icrnv, 
ml ra era cjua. 3, iiteivos 6 apdpmiros 8iKm6r€pos yv rmv 



14 EXERCISE FIJI 

rj oi ovres mB* fjfxaiP, 6. iv i^ovala 6 Xoyos crov. 7. 
Kaipbs avrmp ovx erotfios. 8. el&w fip.lv iroXkol ^pco^etXerai, 
9. €T€pop evayytXtop o ovk twnv aXKo. 10. 6 Xoyos 6 aos 
ahfjQeia earl. II. ovtos flip 2 ireprjs, ittuvos Be 2 rrXovmos. 
12. €Kupoi ovk rjaav vwrJKooi rfj akrjBeia. 13. rjaav dpL^orepoi 
(f}povip,OL teal 7f pacts. 1 4. 9 x^P a * v V Wap eprjfxos «m. 



m C 



15, ev p,ia rmv -qp^podv ateivmv avros 8 rjp ip rm lepm, 

J Seep. 31. 2 See§ 73< ^ 

8 See Handbook, § 169. 



Exercise VIII (p. 57). 

Greek - English. 

1. Who Is this, about whom I hear such things? 
2. He who hears you hears me. 3. He heard music 
and dancing 1 . 4. Release, and ye shall be released 2 . 
5. Now thou dost release thy servant, master, accord- 
ing to thy word, in peace. 6. And he shall reign 
over the house of Jacob for ever, and of his kingdom 
there shall not be an end. 7. As child (serves) father 
he served with me in-furtherance-of 3 the gospel. 
8. Daughters of Jerusalem, weep not for 4 me, but 



EXERCISE VIII 15 

weep for* yourselves and for 4 your children. 9. I 
am not fit to loose the thong of his sandals. 
10. Remember Lot's wife. 11. Blessed is she who 
believed. 12. Wherefore did ye not believe him? 
13. Only, order your life in-a-manner-worthy-of the 
gospel of Christ. 14. She journeyed into the hill 
country with haste. 15. They were both of them 
just before God, walking in all the commandments 
and ordinances of the Lord blameless. 16. His 
face was as though he were going to Jerusalem. 
17. Deliver us from evil 5 . 18. The powers of the 
heavens shall be shaken. 19. The door is shut. 
20. We ourselves have heard. 

1 Lit. * dances.' 

2 For anoXvotaO* read awokvBri&effBe. 

8 Lit. * unto the gospel,' i. e. the gospel is the aim or goal of 
the service. * Lit. i over.' 

5 Or f from the evil one.' 

English -Greek. 

I. fiampioi of m<TTevoPT€S, 2. pera fieyakrjs x a P** s 
fjtcovaav 1 to evayycXwvK 3. aakevdrjarovrat, f) yrj ml ol 
ovpavoL 4. iwopevovro els 'iepoixraX^ft. 5» o'ofXcverc r£ 
Kvpiw £p dprjprf, 6. ovk €7rlcrT€V(Tas roi£ Xoyots fiov. 7» ° 
\6yos tov (vayytXiov inia-Tivdi] h tKcivrj rfj rjp>€pq, 8. clo\v 



16 EXERCISE VIII 

e§ vfimp nvk ot ov rno-Tevovm, 9, mwlo-Ttvica on <rv et 6 
Xpia-ros, 10. crol, SeWora, dovXevcrofiev, 

1 Better than the perf. : see § 77. 2. 

3 Or tov ivayy€k(ov. 

8 Or Soi/AcvWe : see § 77. 5. The student will note the 
ambiguity of BovXevere : it may be indie. < ye serve, ' or imperat. 
i serve ye. 5 Compare the well-known instance (John v. 39), 
< Ye search the Scriptures/ or i Search the Scriptures.' 



Parsing of Verbal Forms (p. 58). 

The student should carefully note the following points : 

(1) A verbal form is sometimes ambiguous: the context 
must decide between possible meanings. 

(2) The meanings given are sometimes approximate only: 
e. g, a subjunctive cannot be translated with precision apart 
from Its context : a perf. ptc. pass, is generally better rendered 
by the simple participle loosed than by the cumbrous having 
been loosed : a pres. inf. and an aor. inf. may be alike rendered 
to loose, and a pres. imperat. and an aor. imperat. loose ; but 
though the different force of the two tenses may escape 
English idiom, the difference should always be carefully 
observed. See § 77. 

(3) In the parsing of Deponent verbs the form may be 
characterized as middle, or passive ; but it must be remembered 
that the meaning is active. Note especially that some de- 



EXERCISE Fill 



17 



ponents have an aorist of middle form, others of passive form, 
in each case with active meaning : they are distinguished 
accordingly as middle deponents and passive deponents, e. g. 
ivopcMrj, aor. of wopevofiai, a passive deponent, he went. 

iJKovcrav— &Kova), act. 1 aor. indie. 3 pi, they heard. 

&Kot3<rcu — anoxia), act, 1 aor. infin. to hear. 

&icou<r&T<ocrav— ckowy, act. 1 aor. imperat. 3 pi. let them hear. 

dicova-eViTai— atcovm, pass. fut. indie. 3 s. he (she, it) mil be 
heard 1 . 

diroAfAv^'vTjv— &iro\v&), pass. pf. ptc. ace. s. fem. having been 
released or released. 

aitohva<a — airoXvou, act. fut. indie, is./ will release. 

PacriXevom — @atnk€va), act. 1 aor. inf. to reign. 

IkW-kAo,'*, act. impf. indie. £ * | ^^epingK 

iKk€i<Tfa\—K\um % pass, 1 aor. indie. 3 s. it was shut. 
mcrT€wavT€s— •wiarevo}, act. 1 aor. ptc, nom. pi. masc. having 
believed. 

liropctjOtj— - iroptvojxai, 1 aor. indie. 3 s. (he, she) went 1 . 
irop€wo|xat— iropevojxai, fut. indie. 1 s. I will go. 
£v<r8!vTas— fivopm, pass. 1 aor. ptc. ace. pi. masc. having 
been delivered or delivered. 

ace. s. masc. ) \ avin $ 
owaAevjAivov— aahivcu, pass. pf. ptc. nom. s, neut. > , H t 

acc.s.neut. \ 8 ^X 
/ shaken \ 



or 



1 The context will, of course, decide between the possible 
meanings. 



B 



1 8 EXERCISE VIII 



Parsing of Verbal Forms (p. 62). 

pX4irovT€S — @kinen f act, pres. ptc. nom. pi. m. seeing. 

pXliTcacriv — fikiiroj, act, pres. subj. 3 pi. they may see. 

t& pXetrojjiiva — pxinaj, pass. pres. ptc. nom. or ace. pi. neut. 
the things which are seen \ 

K€KaXvp,jjL€VOv — KaKvTTTQ}, pass. pf. ptc. having been covered or 
covered. 

KctXtJij/aTC— -tcaXfaTw, act. 1 aor. imperat. 2 pi. cover ye. 

€Kptn|/a — Kpvirrcu, act. 1 aor. indie. 1 s, I hid*. 

€Kpiipi] — KpvwTcu, pass. 2 aor. indie. 3 s. he (she, it) was 
hidden 2 . 

K€Kpt/trTai-— ftptiirra), pass, pf. indie. 3 s. he (she, it) & hidden. 

2it€jju|j€ — wijjma, act. 1 aor. indie. 3 s. /*£ sent. 

ir€jju|/at—~ Tri}Jiira), act. 1 aor. inf. fo s*«<a?. 

Iit€|x<j»0t| — wifiirw, pass. 1 aor. indie. 3 s. A« o>#s sent. 

4Xc(J3op,€v — XapPAvco, act. 2 aor. indie. 1 pi. w* /oo£. 

Xa|3«v — Xappavw, act. 2 aor. ptc. nom. s. m. having taken % , 

etXif|4>(£>s — KapiPdvoj, act. pf. ptc. nom. s. m. having taken 3 . 

X^ij/€cr0€ — Xajifiavoj, mid. fut. indie. 2 pi. jy<? will take. 

X&Pfl — \afj,$av&), act. 2 aor. subj. 3 s. A* w«y /#£<?. 

Xap,pdveT€ — Xa/xPavco, act. pres. indie, or imperat, 2 pi. jy<? take 
or take ye. 

airrov — dtrropai, mid. pres. imperat. 2 s. fow^/i /Aou. 

&irn]Tai — awTO/xat, mid. pres. subj. 3 s. he may touch. 

a\j/|j — awro^at, mid. 1 aor. subj. 2 s. tf/bw may est touch. 

viro<rrpeijJavT€s — virovrpifyaj, act. 1 aor. pte. nom. pi. m. 
having returned. 

tt€|a<|>0€vt€s— irejwiraj, pass. 1 aor. ptc. nom. pi. m. having been 
sent. 



JLrfsink JL00JL \ wd£ *^JlU Jl h£% JL **# 

dtXetiJrat— dXct^j act. 1 aor. inf. to anoint. 

4jX€i4ov—- akeicjx*), act. impf. indie. 3 pi. they were anointing, 

ykypafya — ypcKpco, act. pf. indie. 1 s, I have written, 

1 See p. 57. 

2 Not infrequently a verb uses a 1 aor. form in the act. and 
a 2 aor. in the pass. 

3 The aor. has reference to the act, the perf. to the resulting 

of CI &0i» 



Exercise IX (p. 64). 

Greek -English. 

1, They were returning beating their breasts. 

2. Thou hast hidden 1 these (things) from wise and 
prudent (men), and hast revealed 1 them to babes. 

3. With oil my head thou didst not anoint 2 , but this 
(woman) with ointment has anointed 2 my feet. 

4. And Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit into 
Galilee. 5. These (men) shall receive a more 
abundant judgement. 6. And all were weeping and 
bewailing her. 7. And this word was hidden 3 from 
them. 8. In the Law what is written? 9. She 
touched the fringe of his garment. 10. No one 
having kindled a lamp covers it with a vessel. 11, I 

B 2 



20 EXERCISE IX 

will send my beloved son. 12. And the Lord turned 
and looked upon Peter. 

1 For this rendering of the aorist see § 77. 2. 

2 Note the flexibility of the aorist tense : this double render- 
ing here probably best catches its precise force. 

3 Note the precise force of the tense : it was a-thing~that-had- 
been-hidden : the aorist passive would mean it was hid den , re- 
ferring rather to the act of hiding than to the consequent result. 



English - Greek. 

I. 6 Trarrjp empyjse top vlbv avrov top dyam^rop. 2. Tama 
navra yiy pcxpa vjmp. 3. ro K€Kakvppipop diro twp alcopoap 
tovto * ajroic€Kakv7rTM 2 rah fjLadrjTah 'irja-ov. 4. iroXkcu 
ipTokcti yeypafjifihai eiVt 3 ip rm vo/jim Mowed)?, 5. yeypawTm 
6Vt 4 jreft^G) avro7s 7rpo<f)r}Tas ml didaaKakovs. 6. oi wefi- 

<j)BePT€S V7T€(TTp€^/aV €L$ TOP QIKOP. J. akXoS bov\o$ €7T€p(j)6r] 

irpbs avrovs, 8. neptyop Adfcpop. Q, paicdpioi 01 6<f)$akfJL0l 

Ot (3kmOPT€S a jB\€7T€T£. 10. f3kcir€TC VfAUS idVTOVS*. 

II. ha f$k£wovT€$ fxr) {Skiirmaw. 

1 Repeats subject for emphasis and clearness ' this has 
been revealed.' 

2 Or dn€Kakv(f>$r} : see § 77, a. 

3 Perfect, l stand written 1 : see § 77. 7. 

4 For this on introducing quoted words, see Handbook, 
§ 382. 

5 See Handbook, § 335 (1) b. 






Parsing of ¥erbal Forms (p. 65). 

i}Y €TO — $7^* pass. impf. indie. 3 s, he was being led. 

&x@T]0"€<F0€~-~a7&?j pass, fut. indie. 2 pi. ^ s/?«// be led. 

d-yo.Y €T€ — ^7^* ac *« 2 a 01 *- 1 imperat. 2 pi. lead ye, 

r\y$i\ — ^70?, pass. 1 aor. indie, 3 s, he was led, 

a|wv — $70?, act. fut. pte. nom. s. m. about to lead. 

etywjjiiv — ayw, act. pres. subj. 1 pi. we may lead or let us lead. 

Su&f owt, — BiwKw, act. fut. indie. 3 pi. they will follow. 

8uok6jji€voi — 5(w/f«, pass. pres. pte. nom. pi. m. being followed. 

8e8icoyp.f'voi. — di&Kw, pass. pf. pte. nom. pi. m. having been 
followed. 

8iGJX^a*ovTai — 8«Jmw, pass. fut. indie. 3 pi. they will be 
followed. 

el%€ — ex&if act. impf. 2 indie. 3 s. he had. 

If €i— fxa>, act. fut. 3 indie. 3 s. he will have. 

€crx€ — ex^j ac ^ 2 aor. 2 indie. 3 s. he had. 

€ixop.iv~— ex^i act « impf* indie. 1 pi. we had. 

tkeyt—heyco, act. impf. indie. 3 s. he was saying. 

X€YO|A€va— Ae7<v, pass. pres. pte. nom. or ace. pi. neut. 
being said. 

Xcx^evTa—- Afycw, pass. 1 aor. pte. ace. s. mase. or nom. or ace. 
pi. neut, having been said. 

TiTaYjjtlvov — Ta<J(rw, pass. pf. pte. nom. pi. m. having been 
arranged. 

TCTaKTat — Ta<r<f<u, pass. pf. indie. 3 s. it has been arranged. 

Zragav—Tavffw, act. 1 aor. indie. 3 pi. they arranged. 

$€t»f€Tca — (ptvyw, mid. 3 fut. indie. 3 s. he will flee. 



22 EXERCISE JC 

efyvyov—tptvyo*, act. 2 aor.* indie. 3 pi they fled. 
4»vY«iv~~<jM-ycy, act. 2 aor. 4 infm, to flee. 

1 See § 50 (g). 

2 These forms of fx«w seem to*,be due to an original root <rcx : 
thus fut, ce^cy becomes f£(y, the aspirate replacing the sibilant 
(cf. ?f = six, Lat. sex ; ittra = seven, Lat. septem ; Urqpa, - 
dffrrj/xi, p. 88) ; the impf. ecexoy loses the o* and ec contracts 
into «, the 2 aor. lo'exo*' by syncopation becomes fo'xo*'. 

3 Middle inform only : see note, p. 63. 

4 Root fvy, strengthened in pres. into <j>€vy : see § 46 (a) 
and (c). 



Exercise X (p. 67). 

Greek - English. 

1. And he brought him into Jerusalem. 2. Jesus 
commanded him to be brought to him. 3. He that 
hath ears to hear, let him hear. 4. I have not where 
I may store 1 my fruits. 5. That which concerns me 2 
has an end. 6. They have Moses and the prophets ; 
let them hear them. 7. He was speaking a parable 
to them. 8. Lord, teach us to pray. 9. Why are ye 
troubled 3 ? 10. And when he was now not a great 
way off from the house the centurion sent friends to 
him. 11. Whosoever receives 4 this little child in 5 my 



EXERCISE X 23 

name receives me. 12. I press on towards 6 the 
mark unto the prize of the heavenly calling in Christ 
Jesus. 13. Thy brother is come, and thy father has 
slain 7 the fatted calf. 14. For I am a man set under 
authority, having soldiers under me 8 , and I say to 
this one, Go, and he goes. 15. For the one that is 
least among you all, he is great. 16. Then let them 
who are in Judaea flee into the mountains. 17. To 
him that knocketh it shall be opened. 18. Lord, 
open to us. 19. And his mouth was opened 
20. We receive the due reward of our deeds 9 , but 
this man has done nothing amiss. 

1 Probably <Jvva£v is 1 aor. subj., ' deliberative ' : see Hand- 
hook, § 376 : the idiom extends to indirect questions as well 
as direct. 

2 Lit ' the (thing) concerning me.' 

3 Note precise force of the tense : why are ye men-who- 
have- been- troubled, men-in-a-state-of-trouble. What would 
the pres. indie, mean ? (Why are ye being troubled ?) 

* The subj. is due to the indefiniteness. Handbook, § 380. 

5 Lit. < upon/ i. e. on the ground of my name. 

6 A rare use of mra, but probably the true meaning here, 
though the idea of < according to,' the goal regulating the 
running, may not be absent. 

7 See § 77. 2. 

8 Lit. ' under myself.* 

9 The &v is an instance of 'attraction of the relative/ and 
stands for roHw & : see Handbook, § 346 b. 



2 4 EXERCISE XI 

English -Greek. 

I. rjp hdda-Kmv 1 iv rats away coy ah avrmv. 2. ol ana- 
cttoXch iMdaarKop iv r<S lep£. 3. Kpomre m\ dpoiyfarm 

VfUV. 4. Kl>pi € SvoiioP fjfUV. 5. 6 Be X 6fi€P09 2 fyas €/*€ 

o%ra*. 6. &p6p®Tr6s rts it X e Bvo vlovs. 7. ol eVra e<r X oj> 
ahrfy ywaUa \ 8. o^eV &£wv Bavdrov iwpd X ^ *• 9- o 
'I^oyj IXcye 7rapa/3oX(W r<£ fy\ 9 . Ia cYapa^aw ml 
tyvyop*. 11. ^ TT^Xt? (rvpijyixeprj $v dmvcw top Xoyou 0eov. 
12. 5ra^ wpoaivx^e, Xeycre ILirep j}p&p (5 iv rots olpapoh. 

1 A resolved imperfect, frequent in N. T. ; see Handbook, 
§ 3 6s f ; or kBidaa/ce. 

2 Possibly S€£<5/^ os , but not so good : the English is hardly 
future, but means * a receiver of you is a receiver of me.' 

3 Express the < to wife ' by the noun in apposition, < had her 
(as) wife.' 

4 See § 77. 2 ; or wiirpaKTm, or wtirpaypivop fori, 

5 Or rapax64vT€s etpvyov : see § 79. 3. 



Exercise XI (p. 70). 
Greek - English. 



1. He Is persuaded that John is a prophet. 2. He 
shall be filled with the Holy Spirit. 3. They filled 
both the boats, so that they were sinking \ 4. The 



EXERCISE XI 25 

son of man goeth according to that which hath been 
determined. 5. And amazement seized all, and they 
were glorifying God. 6. And greet no one 2 along 
the road. 7. Thy faith hath saved thee. 8. Only 
believe, and thou shalt be saved s . 9. Lord, are those 
who are saved few? 10. He saved others, let him 
save himself. 11. He will baptize you in the Holy 
Spirit and fire. 12. He wondered that he did not 
first bathe 4 before breakfast, 13. And they were 
wondering at 5 the words of grace that were pro- 
ceeding from his mouth. 14. Were not the ten 
cleansed? But the nine, where (are they)? 15. 
Blessed is he whosoever shall not be offended 6 in 
me. 16. On many blind he freely bestowed sight. 
17. To you it has been freely given on behalf of 
Christ not only to believe on him but also to suffer 
on his behalf 7 . 18. He learnt obedience from the 
things which 8 he suffered. 



* Or * were beginning to sink ' : Handbook, § 362 d. 

2 affwaarjaBe is 1 aor. subj. in imperative sense : see § 77. 6, 
and Handbook, §375. 

3 GQidferi is fut. pass. 2 s. * Or' wash. 1 

5 Lit. ' upon/ i. e. on the ground of, the basis of, their wonder. 

6 Equivalent to a fut. perf. 'who shall not have been 
offended ' ; cf. Handbook, § 383 jS, 

7 The first to needs to be completed in thought by wa<xx*w 



26 EXERCISE XI 

which is thrust out for the moment by the intervening thought 
ov fiSvov , . , dXKa Km, 

8 Attraction of the relative as Exercise X. 20; stands for 
awb TGVTcav a. 



English - Greek. 

I. Ilarcp, tegcurov <rov to opopa. 2. cSo|acrai* * top 6eov 
'la-parjk, 3. fio^-acr^rjcroficu. 4. erreicrap 2 rom <>x\ovs. 5. ov 
W€i(r6rj(T0VTai» 6. Tipes e£ avrap iTrelo-Brjvav. 7. ov nei- 
Boprai 3 rfj akrjBela. 8. eirciroi&ei* em r® &<p 5 . 9. wewoiBats 
rff vTTCLKof} o-ov Zypafya aoi. 10. €7r\fjcrdr]<Tap 7rdvr€s dvpov. 
II. (TKavBdkta-QfjaoPTM iroXXot. 12. vfiiy ixapicrBrj to 6 wcp 
Xpiarov ndcrxew. 

1 Or !So£a£oj>. 

2 The difference between aorist and impf. is well marked in 
this verb : hmdov would mean « they were trying to persuade/ 
possibly without success ; eirtimp means ' they succeeded in 
persuading.' 

3 Instead of ov irddovrai we might have awtiBovcri, from the 
verb aweiOioi, to refuse to believe, 

* niiroi0€P (Mt. xxvii. 43) means ' he trusteth/ as R. V. 

5 The accusative could also stand, Inl top Ocop. 

6 See Rule 5, p. 70. 



EXERCISE XII 27 



Exercise XII (p. 74). 
Greek - English. 

Jl xxJCV X JL# 

1. And suddenly there was with the angel a multi- 
tude of the 1 heavenly host. 2. And astonishment 
came upon all. 3. And it came to pass on one of 
the days that he was teaching. 4. Show yourselves 2 
merciful. 5. There is not a hidden thing which shall 
not become manifest. 6. Now 3 Herod the tetrarch 
heard all that was happening. 7. This 4 became the 
head of the 1 corner. 8. What (is) the sign when 
these things are about to come to pass ? 9. Let thy 
will be done. 10. And he sent them forth to proclaim 
the kingdom of God. 11. It is like 4 a mustard seed, 
which a man took and cast 8 into his garden. 12. To 
his angels he will give charge concerning thee. 

13. We will not that this man should reign 6 over us. 

14, The one owed five hundred pence, and the other 
fifty. 15. How much owest thou thy lord ? 16. Judge 
not, and ye shall not be judged. 17. Out of thy 



28 EXERCISE XII 

mouth I will judge thee. 18. And these words 
appeared 7 in their sight as idle talk. 

1 Or * a ' : see Handbook, § 208, 

2 Perhaps the best rendering of the idiomatic force of this 
pres. imperat. : lit. 'become ye,' in your habitual action and 
in others* appreciation, i. e. ' prove yourselves.' 

s Often a good rendering of Se transitional : see Handbook, 
§ 404. ii. 

* The gender is due to the context : the reference is to 
KiOos, stone, and /SacnXtia, kingdom, respectively. 

5 See § 79. 3. « See § 51, Rule 1. 

f (paivofxat is a Passive Deponent : see note 3, p. 16 (Key) 



PAl^T TT 

i. Ye appear as lights in the world 1 . 2. He did 
not abide in a house, but in the tombs. 3. And 
Mary abode with her about three months. 4. Abide 
with us, because it is towards evening, and the 
day is now far spent 2 . 5. And they cast him out of 
the vineyard and slew him s . 6. He welcomed him 
gladly 4 . 7. In this I rejoice, yea, and 5 1 will rejoice. 
8. But I rejoiced 6 in the Lord greatly. 9. From 
him that taketh thy cloak withhold not 7 thy tunic 
also. 10. And there was taken up that which remained 
to them, twelve baskets of fragments. 11. Thou 



EXERCISE Jill 29 

reapest that which thou didst not sow. 12. And he 
hath raised up 8 a horn of salvation for us. 13. A great 
prophet hath been raised up amongst us. 14. The 
queen of the south shall be raised up in the judgement 
with the men of this generation and shall condemn 
them, 15. The kingdom of God is come 9 upon us. 
16. But if even the salt should have become tasteless, 
with what 10 shall it be seasoned ? 

1 For absence of article see Handbook, § 218. 

3 Lit. * has declined.' 3 See § 79. 3. 

* Lit. ' rejoicing ' : nom. in agreement with subject of verb. 

5 See Handbook, § 404 c. 

6 Note that the fut. and 2 aor. of this verb are of pass, form 
with act. meaning. 

7 See § 77. 6. 8 See § 77. 2. 

9 Almost, ' is come suddenly, unexpectedly/ 

10 Or as in note. 



English - Greek, 

I. 6 iav a-fTiipf] apdpmrros tovto ml Beplcrti, 2. 6 airei- 
pmp ml 6 Bepi^mv x a PW 0PTal » 3» 'Hpwdiys deXei ere diro- 
Kreivai. 4. yevrjdriT® aroi m BeXets. 5. yivoiro l (Jloi Kara to 
pfjfjLa gov'. 6. 6 piKporepos 2 yevfjo-eTm peyas. 7, prj 
Kptv€T€ } tcai ov firf Kpi$rJT€. 8. etc rod (rroparos orov KpivS> <re. 

9, €P m KpLVUS TOP €T€pOV VeOVTOP K€KpiK(l$ 3 * IO. Ti 7*6 

crrip,uop hap fieXK^ tglvtq yipeaOm* ; II. dwb tov pr} 5 f^oy- 



30 EjlERCISE jCIII 

70s Km o €^€t apdrjcrerai. 12. apart top £vyop fiov i<j£ vpas 
Koi fidBere air ip.av. 

1 For the use of the optative to express a wish, see Hand- 
book, § 378 a. 

3 Or Ik&xtcrTos : 6 iwcp6repo$ is literally l he that is less * ; see 
Handbook, § 323 e. 

8 Or aorist tKpivas, 

4 Or thai, or iff€<x$m : see Handbook, § 363 f. 

5 The negative with participles is commonly pi} : the phrase 
indicates an indefinite class, 'from any one who has not' : see 
Handbook, § 393. 



Exercise XIII (p. 80). 

Greek - English. 

1. Honour thy father and thy mother. 2. Blessed 
are ye who hunger now, because ye shall be satisfied. 
Blessed are ye who weep now, because ye shall laugh. 

3. He hath filled hungry ones with good things. 

4. But Jesus rebuked the unclean spirit, and healed 
the boy. 5. Let down your nets for a draught. 
6. Woe unto you, ye who are filled, because ye shall 
hunger. 7. Not on bread alone shall man live. 8. But 
he is not God 1 of dead men, but of living men ; for 



EXERCISE XIII 31 

all live to Him. 9. And they no longer dared to ask 
him anything 2 . 10. He asked him to put out a little 
from the land. n. A voice of one crying in the 
wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord. 12. In 
your endurance ye shall win your souls. 13. She 
was about to die. 14. A great multitude met him. 
15. And they remembered his words. 16. Take 
heed lest ye be led astray. 17. For we are the 
circumcision who serve God in spirit 3 and glory in 
Christ Jesus, and trust not in flesh. 

1 Taking $€os as predicate ; perhaps, however, it is subject ; 
But God is not of dead men, &c.' 

2 For the double negative see Handbook, § 401. 
* For the two datives see § 76. iii. i, 3. 



English - Greek. 

I. 6 fxrj 1 Tifxoov rbv vlov i ov rt/xa rbv waTepa 4 2* wdpTas 
TifjLi]<raT€. 3. rbv jSaertXea Tipare. 4. BibdcrKake, iiriTifirjaov 
rots fiadrjTats <rov. 5. on iyoa £<£ kol v/xeh (tfcreTe 2 . 6. 6 
dyair$>v fie dyanrjBqa-tTai wo rod narpos fiov. 7* Si/tiaw- 
*I<ova 9 ay cm as 3 fie; 8. el ay an are tovs ayairrnvras vjxas irola 
vfiiv x®P ts *°" Tt ' > 9' dyawqcrets Kvpiov rbv 0edV crov. 10. 6 
'fyaovs ifijSkiyffas rm veavlcrKm* r)ya7rr]<T€P clvtqv, II. dvfjp 



3^ EXERCISE XIV 

dwo rod oxkov ifiorjo-ep Xey&v AiMcncake iwi(3X€\jmp im top 
viov fiov, 12. o Kctvx&ptvos, iv Kvplf mvxaa-d®. 



1 See Handbook, § 393, 2 Or £4<r€<r0«. 

3 Or (piheis : see John xxi. 16, 17. 

4 Or kwifthitf/as kwl rdv viaviamv. 



Exercise XIV (p. 83). 

Greek - English. 

PART I. 

1. He 1 shall be great, and shall be called the son 
of the Most High. 2. They would have called 2 
him 3 after 4 the name of his father. 3. Who minis- 
tered to them of their substance 5 . 4. And he took 
bread and gave thanks and brake it. 5. Do this in 
remembrance of me 6 . 6. And why call ye me Lord, 
Lord, and do not the things which I say? 7. Good 
teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life 7 ? 

8. Are not five sparrows sold for two farthings? 

9. Jesus, master, have compassion on us. 10. And 
they feared (with) a great fear 8 . 11. Fear not, only 



EXERCISE XIV 33 

believe 9 . 12. And they worshipped him, and returned 
to Jerusalem. 13. And alarmed and terrified, they 
thought they beheld a spirit. 14. That which is 
written must be accomplished in me. 15. To-day 
I must abide in thy house. 16. It was needful to 
be glad and rejoice. 

1 Lit. * this one/ an emphatic ' he/ 

3 Lit. 'they were calling* : for this force of the impf. see 
Handbook, § 362 d. 

8 Lit. ' it,' referring to to vai&iov 'the child.' 

4 Lit. ' upon,' expresses the ground of the naming. 

5 Lit. ' out of the things which were to them.' 

6 Lit. ' with a view to my remembrance ' : for this use of 
the possessive pronoun ( = objective genitive) see Handbook, 

§ 333. 

7 Lit. ' having done what, shall I inherit ? ' 

8 For this important idiom of the ' cognate accusative * see 
further Handbook, § § 282, 284. 

9 Note the different tense and force of the two imperatives ; 
see §77-5- 



JL X X, JlV. jl jl jl * 

i. Beware of the scribes, who desire to walk in 

long-robes and love greetings in the market-places. 

2. Do violence 1 to no man, neither accuse any man 

falsely 2 , and be content with your wages 8 . 3. The 

master praised the unjust steward because he did 

c 



34 EXERCISE XIV 

prudently. 4. But I have a baptism to be baptized 
with, and how I am straitened until it be accom- 
plished 4 ! 5. But he took her hand and called to 
her saying, Maiden 5 , arise. 6. It seemed good to me 
also 6 , having followed closely all things 7 accurately 
from the first 8 , to write in order unto thee. 7. And 
he spake 9 blessing God. 8. And all who heard 
wondered concerning the things that were spoken by 
the shepherds. 9. This man began to build, and was 
not able to finish. 10. There is joy in the presence 
of the angels of God over one sinner repenting. 
11. Bless those that curse you. 12. It is adorned 10 
with beautiful stones and offerings. 13. I beseech 
Euodia and I beseech Syntyche to be of the same 
mind 11 in the Lord. 14. Ye have revived your 
thought 12 for me 13 ; in which matter 14 ye did even 
take thought, but ye lacked opportunity 15 . 15. It 
was he built the synagogue for us. 

1 See § 77. 6. 

2 For ffvmo(pavTr}(r€Te read avKOipavrirjaijTe, 1 aor. subj. : the 
word may also mean ' exact wrongfully,' see Lk. iii. 14, R.V, 

8 Lit. ' rations ' : then, since soldiers were paid partly in 
kind, more generally i wages,' e. g. i the wages (hxpuivta) of sin,' 
Rom. vi. 23. 

4 The subj. is due to the indefiniteness ; * until what time 
it shall have been accomplished' : Brov is gen. s. of Saris; see 
§ 37 b. 



EXERCISE XIV 35 

§ For Hats read C H irafs* 

? The ¥erb 'to follow* takes the dative. 

8 Lit. ^from above/ the metaphor is perhaps suggested by 
the tracking of a stream from its upper source to its mouth. 
Or l was speaking' or 'began to speak/ 

10 Note force of perfect, § 77* 7* 

11 Lit. ' to think the same thing/ 

12 Taking avaQ&kkoj as transitive : if it is intransitive (as in 
the vocabulary), the meaning is, c ye IiaYe revived so as to take 
thought for me/ the inf. expressing consequence, 

13 Read <ppovuv (semicolon). 

14 Probably, with some looseness of connexion, ' in which 
matter (of my interests) f : possibly^ however, £ seeing that/ as 
R.V. margin, Phil. iv. 10. 

15 Read ijiccuptioOt* 



English - Greek* 

X. dt&zcrKaXe, re woirjaofiiP 1 * 2* icaBm ^cXcrc tva nam™ 
€tip u/up ol avBpmwoi ml vfiets fHMcrrf avrois. 3. wop€vov y 
ml orv ttqUi SfAoims* 4. Xeya> rm dovkm jiov, Hoit](rop tovto 9 
ml worn* 5* 2//ifi>y 'lawa, ^)tXug $i€ j 6. avms 6 frarrjp 
ipiket vfjLm on vpcis ipi 7T€0iX^Kare # 7* ° ^iXcSp waripa ?| 
firjripa vmp ifxi ov& tcm fiov a£eof# 8. gukoymp gvXoy^am 
(F€* g re\€®*0i](F€Tm wdvra tm y€ypap*pipa §ta 2 reap irpoiprjT&v. 
IO. fiei ro y€ypafi[jL€vop TefctrBrjvai iv ipoL XX, rercXeorcH. 
12. ravra 8 cXaX^ow 6 'li/crovs. 13. oyrc$ yiypafrrm Kal 

w 8 



36 EXERCISE XV 

ovrm edei Trafalv top Xpurrov. 1 4. ri pe o*e? notch Xva 
(rcadm • 15. fX€Tavoi](raT€ ml iwuTTpexlsaTe, 

1 Or iroir}(TQ)ix6v } 1 aor. subj. (deliberative), * what are we to 
do ? ' : Handbook, § 376. 

2 Lit. ' through.' 

3 Simpler and more usual than tovs Koyovs rovrovs or tcL 
pruxara ravra. 



Exercise XV (p. 85). 
Greek - English. 

1. There they crucified him. 2. And the child 
grew and became strong in spirit 1 , being filled with 
wisdom 2 . 3. Every one who exalts himself shall 
be humbled, but he who humbles himself shall be 
exalted. 4. Wisdom is justified of 3 all her children. 

5. To what shall I liken the kingdom of God? 

6. To-day is this scripture fulfilled in your ears. 

7. Jerusalem shall be trodden down by the nations 4 
until the times of the nations 4 be fulfilled. 8. Ye 
are those who justify themselves before men. 

1 Dative of ' sphere ' : see Handbook, § 280 f. 

2 Dative of ( instrument,' § 76, iii. 3 : cf. p. 69, Rule 1. 

3 Lit. 'from,' expresses the source of the justification 

4 Or < Gentiles/ 



EXERCISE XVI 37 



English - Greek. 



* ~ 'i 



I. eKpagav 1 , (TTavpaa-ov, orTavpaxrov avr6v. 2. r)p€ts 
Krjpixra-opev Xpiarbp £(rravpmphov. 3. ov BiKmaB^airm 
av$p(onos ££ epymv rapv. 4. ovs eKakeae tovtovs km f'oV 
KauMrtv, kcu ovs ibtKataxre rovrous Koi ibogacrev. 5. £irkr)p&6ri 
% ypafyrf. 6. e§« Trkrjpa&rjvat rrjv ypa^v. 7. eyeWo 
raOra ti>a 7rAf?p<»0€in s o Xdyos- ray wpo<f>r)r£>p. 8. cVX??- 
poiWo x«pas Kat irvevparos ayiov. 



1 1 aor. of Kpafa ; or I*pau<ya<rai/ 1 aor. of fcpavyAfc. 

2 The we is emphatic, and is hence to be expressed. 
8 The subj. irhrjpvOrj is more usual in N. T. Greek. 



Exercise XVI (p. 86). 



Greek - English. 



1. For Christ also pleased not 1 himself. 2. They 
did not understand what was said 2 . 3. We know 
that thou art the Christ 4. There is nothing hidden 



3^ EXERCISE XVI 

which shall not be known. 5. Let your forbearance 3 
be known unto all men. 6. And they remembered 
his words 4 . 7. What is man that thou rememberest 
him ? 8. He has sold all that 5 he had. 

1 For ovx see § 72. 8. 

2 Note the descriptive imperfects, * they were not under- 
standing what was being said > : see Handbook, § 362 e. 

8 Neut. of emewris, seemly, fair, gentle: see Phil. iv. 5, R.V. 
The article with a neut. adj. is often equivalent to an abstract 
noun ; Handbook, § 199. 

4 For genitive see p. 80, Rule 1. 

5 Lit. 'as-many-things-as/ § 37 d. 



English - Greek. 

I. eyvmKa vpas on ttjv dyciTrrjv tov 8eou ovk ^ere iv 
mvroh 1 . 2. yvvo-eo-de rrjv ak{]$eiap, 3. fyreiTe ml evprj- 
trere. 4. evpidrj 6 'irjcrovs povos 2 . 5. cvpe x^piv irapa rm 
ee<3. 6. €vp?]Kafi€P tov Xpwrov. 7, epvTjo-Qrj 6 Tlerpos tov 
pharos tov 'irjarov, 8. pvrjcrdrjTi pov, Kvpit 3 # 9, tkd(r6rjTl 

pOL } Kvpl€ 3 . 

1 See § 34 : vpiv might stand. 

2 For case see First Concord, § 74. 

3 Or Kvpie may stand first in the sentence. 



EXERCISE XVII 39 



Exercise XVII (p. 93). 

Greek - English. 

Note.— Throughout the following exercises the student will 
find it helpful to consult the fuller paradigms in Handbook, 
§§ 107, 112. 

1. The Lord God shall give him the throne of 
David his father. 2. To every one that asketh thee, 
give \ 3. I am not able to rise and give to thee. 
4. Who is it who gave thee this authority? 5. He 
took hold of a child and placed it beside him. 

6. And he was standing beside the lake of Gennesaret. 

7. Arise 2 , and stand in the midst 3 . 8. And all his 
acquaintances stood afar off seeing these things. 
9. How shall his kingdom stand? 10. And Jesus 
stood-still 4 and commanded that he should be 
brought. 11. And standing over 5 her he rebuked 
the fever, and it left 6 her. 12. They left 7 all and 
followed him. 13. Thy sins are forgiven. 14. And 
all who heard laid them up in their heart. 15. He 
laid a foundation upon the rock. 16. They beheld 
the tomb and how his body was placed. 17. The 
axe is laid 8 at the root of the trees. 18. Lord, if 



4° EXERCISE XVII 

thou wilt 9 thou art able to make me clean. 19. Stand 
fast in the Lord, beloved. 

1 For tense see § 77. 5. 

2 1 aor. imperat mid. 

3 Lit. ' into the midst.' 

4 Lit. 'having stood,' i.e. 'halted.' 

5 Read kmoT&s 1 . 

6 Note this 1 aorist in -tea, p. 91 (a). 

7 a<pivT€$ is nom. pi. m. ofd<peis the 2 aor. ptc. of &<f>it] pi. This 
verb (like TiBrjpt and BiSoofii) has an aorist of mixed form : see 
Handbook, § 108. 1, and the full paradigm in § 112. 

8 mtfxai serves often as a passive to riOrj/u, 

9 Note exact force of kdv with subj. ; § 77. 8 (3). 



English - Greek. 

I . rnVftre * m\ BoOrjcrerm vplv. 2 , ebcoKtv avroh BvpafMP 
Kai igovo-iap em wdvra ra dmpdvia. 3. ovdeh dvv^o-erat 
dveri Kvpiois tovXeveiP, 4, vplv dedorai yvtovai to fivcrrripiov 
ttjs ftcurikeias rod Qeov. 5. alpeig o ovk WrjKas, 6. ayyekos 
Kvplov 2 €7T€(TTrj avroh. 7. tls bvpctTcu dcfriepcu dpapTias el prj 
fiovos 6 Beds ; 8. ovk rjfyie Xdkeh rot baipdvia. 9. avd- 
(TTrjBi iwl tovs wodas (tov. 10. 7r£>s o-rad^aeTm f} fiaaikeia 
avrov* f II. ov a-T^Kei iv tj) akrjBeiq. 12. earrrjaev avro 
els to peer op. 

1 Lit. ' be asking,' continually, habitually. 

2 Handbook, § 217 b. 



EXERCISE XVIII 41 



Exercise XVIII (p. 95). 
Greek - English. 

1. And he will show you a large upper room 
furnished 1 . 2. The new wine will burst the wine- 
skins. 3. Master, master, we are perishing i 4. I 
have found 2 my sheep which was lost 2 . 5. And 
a hair from your head shall by no means perish 8 . 
6. Let your loins be 4 girt. 7. Who hath warned 
you to flee from the coming wrath 5 ? 

1 i.e. prepared for the supper; lit, 'strewn/ referring to 
coverings on couches, &c. 
* Note tenses ; § 77. 2, 7. 
8 For ov pi} see p. 73. 

4 For ZffTwaav see p. 87. 

5 Lit. ' the wrath about to be.' 



English - Greek. 

I. 09 av 6eXj] l tr&crcu tijp ^vx^jv avrov twroXetm avrify. 
2, ifcqrovv avrbv awokecrai. 3. ovs debcoKas [xoi ovk dnSKccra 
e| avTap ovheva. 4. ebei^v avrS waaas ras fiacriXeias tov 
Kotr/xov 2 . 5. €$€i£;€v avTois ras X € W as Kai T0 ^ s ^°as S . 



42 EXERCISE XVIII 

6. Bu§ov (reavrbp r<p Upel, 7. eppcaadi, 8. pqyvvvTai of 

1 Or 6 ekXcav. 

2 Or T5?s ol/£ovfjiivf}$, lit. * the inhabited earth.* 

3 The { his * is sufficiently expressed by the article : alrov is 
not needed. 

4 a&Kos is masc.j not neut. as given by error in vocab. 



Exercise XIX (p. 97). 

Greek - English. 

I. 

1. There is coming he that is stronger than I. 
2. I am not come to call righteous men but sinners 
to repentance. 3. And his disciples were plucking 
the ears of corn and were eating. 4. And they all 
ate and were satisfied. 5. Let us see this word l which 
is come to pass. 6. Another shall gird thee, and shall 
bear thee whither thou wiliest not. 7. Has any one 
brought him (anything) to eat ? 8. And the two were 
running together, and the other disciple ran on more 
quickly than Peter, and came first to the tomb. 

9. Another saw him and said, Thou also art of them. 

10. Ye shall earnestly desire 2 to see one of the 
days of the Son of man, and shall not see (it). 

1 Or < thing.' 2 Read ernQvix^atTs. 



2 



EXERCISE XIX 43 

II. 

i. Art thou the Coming One, or do we look for 
another ? 2. Let thy kingdom come. 3. Come, 
because all things are now ready. 4. Blessed (is he) 
whosoever shall eat bread in the kingdom of God. 

5. And they answered that they did not know. 

6. Knew ye not that I must be in my Father's house? 

7. They came to the tomb bearing 1 spices which 
they had prepared. 8. And he saith to them, Draw 
out now and bear to the ruler of the feast : and they 
bare (it). 9. Jesus said to him, It is said 3 , Thou shalt 
not tempt the Lord thy God. 10. They departed, 
and found as he had said to them. 

1 Fern. pte. referring to the women. 

' 2 0! is here not the article but a demons, pronoun : Handbook, 

§ 195- 
3 For the perf. see § 77. 7. 

English - Greek. 

I. iXeva-erm m\ tmokicni rovs irovrjpovs tovtoWj w\ dmcru 
top dfjLWfX&va aXkois. 2. pvrjcrBrp-i fiov, Kvpie, orap ekBrjs iv 
rfj ftaarikela aov. 3. eyob 1 iXqXvBa iv ra ovofxari rod warpos 
juou, ko! ov Xafi/SaveTe pie' iav aKXos eX% iv tg> opopari t® 
Ibm, ikeivov \rj\jfea-6e. 4. ravrrjp rrjv (pmvrjv rjp.els 1 r}Kovarap.€v 
e£ ovpavov ivexBelcrap, 5. ayioi 0€ov avBpwwoi rfpexOrjaav 



vtto Uvtvparos 'Aylov 2 . 6. ri i^Xdere ideiv ; >]. 6 ovpavbs 
Kai fj yrj 7rap€\€v€rovrai } ol de Xdyot pov ov pfj irapekBmai. 
8. otdd ere ris 3 et, 6 ayios tov Qeov. g, vjBeMrav avrbv tqv 
Xpurrbv etvai. 10. <tv de peve iv oh epaOes, elbas rrapa 
TiPO$ B epafcs. II. iav ewn»/xe*>, *E£ ovpavov, epet, Atari ovv 
ovk eiTKTTevcraTe avrco ; 12. Hdrep i afas avrolg' ov yap 
otbaai rl s TTOtova-t, 

1 Emphatic from the context : hence expressed. 

2 No article : see Handbook, § 217 f, 

3 Interrogative, not relative. 



Exercise XX (p. 101). 

Greek - English. 

I. 

1. Beware lest any render to any evil in return for 
evil. 2. Wherefore whatsoever 1 ye have said in the 
darkness shall be heard in the light ; and what * ye 
have spoken to the ear in the inner chambers shall 
be proclaimed upon the housetops. 3. There is no 
disciple above his master. 4. This cup (is) the new 
covenant in my blood which is being shed for you. 
5. Pray ye 2 for me to the Lord. 6. To you it hath 
been freely given on behalf of Christ, not only to 



EXERCISE XX 45 

believe on him but also to suffer on his behalf. 
7. Out of His fulness have all we received, and grace 
for grace. 8. And those 3 upon the rock (are) they 
who, when they hear, with joy receive the word. 
9. Christ suffered once for all for sins, a righteous 
one for unrighteous. 10. He came to the sea of 
Galilee, in the midst of the borders of Decapolis. 
11. In order that that which was spoken by the Lord 
through the prophet might be fulfilled. 12. And ye 
shall be hated by all for my name's sake. 13. All 
things have been created through him and unto him. 
14. And about the fourth watch of the night he 
comes to them walking upon the sea. 15. But he 4 
was speaking about the temple of his body. 

1 Note the difference between these two relatives: 'as 
many things as ' (indefinite) ; 'that which ' (definite). 

2 Aor. imperat. of Uofxm pray, a passive deponent. 

3 ot as demons, pronoun : Handbook, § 195. 
* Emphatic, contrasted with hearers. 



II. 

1. Therefore being justified by faith, we have 
(or let us have) peace with God through our Lord 
Jesus Christ. 2. I will be to him as a father, and he 
shall be to me as a son. 3. The sabbath was made l 



4$ EXERCISE XX 

for man's sake, and not man for the sake of the 
sabbath. 4. The sons of this world 2 are more 
prudent than the sons of the light in regard to their 
own generation. 5. Learn from me. 6. And now 
glorify me, Father, with thyself with the glory whieh 
I had with thee before the world was 8 . 7. And he 
is before all things, and all things in him consist 4 . 
8. Judge nothing before the time. 9. Some were 
with the Jews and others with the apostles. 10. And 
this voice we heard borne from heaven, being with 
him on the holy mount. 11. I came forth from the 
Father. 12. And he was standing by the lake of 
Gennesaret, and he saw two boats standing by the 
lake, but the fishermen had gone out of them and 
were washing their nets. 13. Is there unrighteousness 
with God ? God forbid. 14. I thank my God upon 
all my remembrance of you, always in every sup- 
plication of mine on behalf of you all, making my 
supplication with joy, for your fellowship in furtherance 
of 5 the gospel. 

1 Lit. l became/ <eame into being, 2 Or <age.> 

8 Note the construction : rod ehm is the gen. governed by 

irpS, and rhv Koapov is the accus. subject to the infinitive, § 78, 

V3- 

Lit. ' stand together' (Lat. consistere), i.e. are a system, 

a cosmos, not a chaos. » See note 3, p, 15 (Key). 



VOCABULARY: ADDENDA, etc. 

p. H4j add &A*f)0€ia, truth, 41* 

115 „ dpxiTp£K\tvos 9 ruler of a feast, 98. 

116 „ liricucfjs, seemly, gentle, 86. 
I? „ tppmwo, farewell, 95. 

„ ,, icpiAiov, foundation, 92* 

117 (Jk^arrifiC) substitute j?o s#/ own 
,, jfcr £rjTia) f £i)rca>, 

118, add KaTapdojiai, to curse, 81, 
„ „ nkkm to break, 8r* 

to vrjmos, infantine j 31. 

^0 ov, <r&x> 105, 

Tdiros, place, 41* 

4>op€op,ai, to fear, 82* 

cop% nom., 35, 

as, kcl$w$, 84* 
,, ask, to, prefix 79 /o 92, 

125, do, to, add 82. 

126, love, to, „ Bs. 

126, aoft/pass away, to, wapipxo^m, 98. 
127 „ say, to, Afyu, 66, 

fl see, to ? add 96, 
„ seven, raw/ lirrd. 
3 , speak, to* add 81* 
n , stand near, to^ arfrf 2 aon of* 
128^ add wicked, wovripos, 98. 



119 


n 


120 


n 


122 


it 


123 


n 


)9 


jf 


124 


ff 



ERRATA IN THE PRIMER. 

The learner is requested to make the following alterations. 
Minor corrections, especially in accentuation, will be made in 
future editions. 

p. 27, 1. 2r, (dtrkovs) read (-orj) (Sov), 

p. 31, 1. 26, ('IcoavvT]s) read -oiu 

p. 42, 1. 12, for 5 read 7. 

p. 52, 1. 21 and p. 54, 1. 4, add or -ei to the 2 pers. termination. 

p. 57, sentence 4 in exercise, read airokvOrjaeode. 

p. 63, verb 4 in left-hand column, read aitTOjxai. 

p. 66, word 4 in right-hand column, also p. 67, sentence 10, 

read IicaTovT&px'ns. 

p. 70, sentence 17, for avrov readavrbv. 

p. 71, 1. 5 from bottom, read § 57 c. 

pp. 77, 78, Subjunctive, like the Indicative, refers to Tifidm only. 

p. 82, verb 6 in left-hand column, read irrlou-ca. 

p. 82, vocabulary, read ahmos -ov. 

p. 83, 11. 8 and 11, for form read force. 

p. 84, sentence 2, read avKo^avrqarire, 

p. 84, sentence 5, insert 37 before irais. 

p. 84, sentence 14, read rjKaipua$€. 

p. 88, 1. 12, read Participle. 

p. 88, 1. 10 from bottom, for I stand read I cause to stand. 

p. 88, last line, for -o<n{v) read -oaon(v). 

p. 89, 1. 5, for -afxev -are -aaav read -rjfxev -rjrc -rjcrav. 

p. 91, 1. 22, omit See Rule 2, § 107. 

p. 91, 1. 2 from bottom, after is add in the N.T. 

p. 93, sentence 11, second word, reference should be \ 

p. 95, vocabulary, left-hand column, for to read 6. 

p. 96, 1. 18, for Imperfect read Imperative. 

p. 97, sentence 10, read kmOv^riaire. 

p. 1 01, sentence 2, line 2, read b . . . iKaKrjcrare, 

p. 102, 1, 14, read akius, 

p. 103, 1. 1, read idlq. 

p. 105, to first paragraph add all with gen. 

p. 105, reference in 8 (a), read § 72. 

p. 108, 11. 8, 9, read avroi, nom. (See Handbook, § 387).